Lecture at the XXXIV International Congress on the History of Veterinary Medicine,

Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnía, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, Mexico City, September 24-27, 2003; Proceedings: pages 83-85




Kouba, V.


Former: Animal Health Officer (Veterinary Education) and Chief, Animal Health Service, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations


      The paper is describing the history of the United Nations activities in the field of veterinary education during second half of the 20th century. Soon after the foundation of the United Nations in June 1945 in San Francisco,  USA, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), founded in October 1945 in Quebec,  Canada, was charged with the responsibility also for global animal health policy, including veterinary education. FAO in close cooperation with the World Health Organization (WHO) was assisting member countries in development of veterinary manpower through veterinary education, training, fellowships, establishing and strengthening veterinary schools, etc. .These activities represented integral components of FAO social, economic and agriculture development policy and of the WHO policy protecting human health, in this case against diseases transmissible from animals.


   The paper is based on official FAO documents such as FAO/WHO/OIE Animal Health Yearbooks (1), a variety of FAO technical publications, reports from formal meetings, projects documents, missions reports, periodicals and other FAO HQs documents (2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9), literature sources (10,11) as well as on personal experience of the author as former FAO HQs staff member.


      FAO had three major roles in the area of food and agriculture: to act as a center for the collection and analysis of information, to act as an international forum and source of policy advice and to provide its Member Nations with technical assistance. It was furnishing, on request from the governments, specific technical assistance, organizing missions for preparing and executing national and international projects. The highest priority was given to developing countries, particularly those in Africa. The assistance was provided through FAO Regular Programme and FAO-operated field projects.


     The assistance of the FAO Regular Programme concerned a great variety of activities including education and training mainly through the FAO Agriculture Education Division with exception of animal health education and training. These were incorporated into the FAO Animal Production and Health Division. There was established a special full-time post of Animal Health Officer (Veterinary Education) who was professionally responsible for all United Nations programmes in this field (E. Knudsen, M. Braend, V. Kouba and J. Wegener). He was supervised initially by the Chief, Livestock Education and Research Service and later by the Chief, Animal Health Service who was responsible for all United Nations animal health programmes. In the middle of the eighties this post was abolished due to economic reasons and the responsibility was transferred into the terms of reference of the Senior Officer (Animal Health) of the same service.


      United Nations veterinary education policy, based upon general principles of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), was guided by the recommendations of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultations on Veterinary Education held in 1960 in London, in 1962 in Rome, in 1963 in Rome, in 1965 in Copenhagen, in 1971 in Rome, in 1978 in Uppsala and in 1993 in Rome. The objectives of these consultations were to produce recommendations to serve as international guidelines for the development of veterinary education and training programmes, facilities and staff.  As example can be mentioned some recommendations of   the Uppsala consultation related to introduction of new subjects in the school curricula: “Students should receive adequate training in the various aspects of veterinary preventive medicine including animal production, human and animal health protection, animal reproduction, animal hygiene, food hygiene, epizootiology or veterinary epidemiology, environment protection, disease surveillance and  monitoring, data processing, formulating and conducting effective disease control programmes, veterinary economics, etc.”  The consultation held in Rome in 1971 was dedicated to the animal health assistants and their education.


      The participants of these consultations were top level experts selected from developed and developing  countries of all continents representing teachers and employers of school graduates (e.g., Chief Veterinary Officers). FAO organized also follow-up regional expert consultations (e.g. in Nairobi, Kenya in 1984) to deal with more specific problems of the given continent. Besides above-mentioned general education policy consultations, FAO and WHO were organizing  expert consultations on different specific problems of veterinary education (e.g. WHO Consultation on undergraduate and postgraduate teaching in veterinary public health was held  in Brno, Czechoslovakia; WHO Consultations on development and training in veterinary epidemiology  organized in Teramo, Italy  and in Hannover, Germany, etc.).


      Particular attention was given to monitor veterinary manpower development at national, regional and global levels. In 1956 FAO started the collection of specific information on the number of veterinarians as the basis for veterinary manpower planning. These data were published in the FAO/WHO/OIE Animal Health Yearbook (founded by H.O. Konigshofer). From 1982 the indicator of total number of veterinarians in individual countries was completed by the numbers of government veterinary officials, veterinarians in laboratories, universities and training institutions and private practitioners. Simultaneously, it was started the collection of data on animal health assistants, field assistants, vaccinators and persons involved in food hygiene. These data facilitated to forecast manpower development as the basis for planning of the education facilities and their capacity development. After the abolishment of the above mentioned yearbook in 1996, these data were published by International Office of Epizootics (OIE) in its yearbook “World Animal Health”.


      Special FAO programme was dedicated to analyze the availability of veterinary education and training facilities and to identify the needs for veterinary manpower development in particular regions. (e.g. in 1979 in seven Southern Africa countries - Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, and Zambia - were working only 140 veterinarians including 30 nationals). These analyses served for FAO planning to establish new schools (e.g. new veterinary faculty built in Lusaka, Zambia with financial support of Japanese government; new school for animal  health assistants of Persian Golf states built in Al-Hofuf, Saudi Arabia operated by FAO and financed by  Saudi government, etc.) and to strengthen existing ones (e.g. FAO projects assisting veterinary faculties in Afghanistan, Morocco, Mozambique, Sri Lanka, Uganda, Uruguay, etc.). In all these projects FAO provided also assistance in teaching, education programmes and syllabi development considering always local needs and conditions stressing the importance of population and preventive medicine as well as strong practical training.


      Professional literature, teaching material, equipment and facilities for practical exercises were provided in the majority of education and training projects.  FAO provided member countries with top level international experts  to teach at  veterinary schools (mainly university teachers) and at international and national postgraduate training courses. Other assistance consisted  in sending consultants to help member countries to elaborate and develop national education programmes. FAO  was providing on request external examiners for final examinations at some schools of developing countries.


      Very important for new diagnostic technology transfer were the courses organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Animal production and Health Division in Vienna, Austria and in different regions and countries. FAO organized also specialized postgraduate training courses of high level. Of particular importance were the courses for future university professors ("teach teachers to teach"). The most important were FAO/DANIDA  (Danish International Development Agency) International Postgraduate Courses in preventive medicine and  in  food hygiene and veterinary public health at Copenhagen Agriculture University (at the "Faculty for  FAO  Fellows"), Denmark and FAO/SIDA (Swedish International Development Authority) International Postgraduate Courses in veterinary pathology and in animal reproduction at Uppsala University, Sweden. Follow-up seminars were organized by FAO/SIDA in individual continents for the ex-participants to update their knowledge (e.g. Latin America follow-up seminars in veterinary pathology at National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico, in animal reproduction in Lima, Peru, etc.; African follow-up seminars in veterinary pathology and animal reproduction at Nairobi University, Kenya, etc.; Asian follow-up seminars in veterinary pathology at Kasetsrat University, Thailand, in animal reproduction in Lahore, Pakistan and Tirupati, India, etc.).


     For the preparedness of veterinary services to be able to cope with emergency situation in case of the  introduction  of very dangerous diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and diseases which could be abused  for international bioterrorism, FAO organized so called “simulation exercises”. As examples can be mentioned simulation exercises for Latin America in Colombia and Uruguay in 1982, for Mediterranean countries in Italy in 1990,  for Southeastern European countries in Bulgaria in 1995, for Central and Eastern European countries in Poland in 1998 and in Czech Republic in 2001. Several training courses in vaccine production and control were organized mainly in African Region (e.g. in Debre-Zeit, Ethiopia and in Nairobi, Kenya).


     In all major United Nations animal health field projects were included training components to prepare national counterpart staff to be able to continue coping with the particular problems after ending international assistance. Similar purpose had FAO study tours of  national counterpart persons to be acquainted within the experience  in other countries. There were also relatively small animal health projects consisted  exclusively in training of selected persons for specific national tasks.


      FAO provided thousands of fellowships for the students from developing countries (e.g. in 1979 was offered   99 veterinary fellowships) in selected institutions and schools of developed world (e.g., Reading University and  Edinburgh University, UK, California University, USA,  Veterinary faculty and Institut d´élevage et de medicine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux (IEMVT) Maisons-Alfort, France, etc.). The fellowships were of different durations (up to many years) and levels (up to PhD study).  Training courses were organized also at FAO and/or WHO Collaborating Centres and Reference Laboratories located in all continents. As examples can be mentioned  WHO/PAHO (Pan-American Health Organization) training courses and fellowships at PANAFTOSA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil preparing specialists for the diagnosis and control of vesicular diseases; similar importance had the training at Pirbright , United Kingdom as FAO/OIE world reference laboratory for foot-and-mouth disease and other very dangerous diseases.  As other regional training center can be mentioned Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Centre in Athens, Greece.  Newly  trained specialists brought to their home countries significant professional knowledge and transferring it through local training on the others multiplied fellowship effect.


     WHO in cooperation with FAO published in 1973 World Directory of Veterinary Schools and in 1974 World Directory of Schools for Animal Health Assistants. The FAO Animal Health Service was represented also in the Education Committee of the World Veterinary Organization (WVA) to coordinate their activities in this field.


      FAO and WHO produced many textbooks and manuals for education and training of veterinary staff. As example can be mentioned manuals: for training in tse-tse and trypanosomiasis control, in screwworm control, in ticks and tick-borne diseases control, in rinderpest control, in rabies control, in brucellosis control,  salmonelloses control, in tropical helminthiases control, in  food hygiene (e.g., Foodborne disease: a focus for health education, WHO, 2000),  in viral, bacterial and parasitic zoonoses diagnosis and control,  in veterinary public health, in primary health care, etc.; for training of animal health assistants, etc. Special publication for the teachers of veterinary epidemiology  was produced by WHO, FAO and Italian experts in 1997 (published in Teramo as “Manual for teaching of basic veterinary epidemiology” and financed by Italian government).  Very useful was lending service of FAO central library and film archive.


       FAO had three finance sources for its field projects: its own Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP) which was funded from the Organization's Regular Programme budget, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Trust funds (TF), mainly FAO/Government Cooperative Programme (GCP). GCP assistance was provided by industrialized countries or institutions such as development banks. Donors frequently chose to take advantage of FAO´s technical expertise, trained personnel and language skills needed to operate effectively with the countries of their choice. FAO as an objective and neutral source of advice was offering: the preparation of cost/effective project proposals; the ability to run project efficiently; a large international roster of experts on which to draw for field staff; accurate and timely reporting on project finance and progress and appropriate operational and technical “backstopping” by Headquarters services. FAO was serving always as executing technical agency.






1. FAO (1956-1996) - FAO/WHO/OIE Animal Health Yearbook, Rome.

2. FAO (1977-2000) Animal Production and Health Papers, FAO Technical Papers, Rome.

3. FAO (1978-1990) - AGA Information Notes, Rome.

4. FAO (1980-1995) - World Animal Review, Rome.

5. FAO (1991) - Guidelines for strengthening animal health services in developing countries. Rome, 141 pp.

6. FAO (1998-2000) - EMPRESS Transboundary Animal Disease Bulletin, Rome.

7. FAO/IAEA (1998-2001) -  Animal Production and Health Newsletter, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, IAEA,                                                Vienna.

8. FAO-WHO Expert Consultations on Veterinary Education, 1960-1993

9. Kouba V. & col. (1990) - FAO Animal Health Service Autoevaluation, FAO, Rome, 9 pp.

10. Kouba V. (1997) - Contribution of Veterinary Services to Economic Development and Protection of Human Health -  Historical Aspects. World Vet.                                         Assoc. Bul., Vol. 14: 78-83.

11. Lamm C.G. (1994) - The History of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and its Allied Laboratory (1964-                                               1994), International Atomic Energy Agency, Viena, 186 pp.


Note: Text is available also on World Veterinary Association website: www.worldvet.org/docs/wvauneduvet.doc - archive 424


TAB. 1



First International Meeting on Veterinary Education, held in London from 25 to 30 April 1960

First Meeting of the FAO/WHO Expert Panel on Veterinary Education, held in Rome from 14 to 23 March 1962

Second Meeting of the FAO/WHO Expert Panel on Veterinary Education, held in Rome from 23 April to 2 May 1963

Second FAO/WHO International Meeting on Veterinary Education, held in Copenhagen from 12 to 21 August 1965

Third Meeting of the FAO/WHO Expert Panel on Veterinary Education, held in Rome from 12 to 16 July 1971

Fourth Meeting of the FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Veterinary Education held in Uppsala from 28 August to 2 September 1978

Fifth Meeting of the FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Veterinary Education held in Rome from 7 to 10 September 1993




TAB. 2




From 1956:

                           Total number of veterinarians

From 1982:

              Professional and Technical Veterinary Manpower

                            Number of  veterinarians :

                                 - total

                                 -  government officers (central, local)

                                 -  in laboratories,  universities and training institutions

                                 -  private practitioners

                                 - others             

               Animal health auxiliary personnel

                                 Number of :

                                – animal health assistants

                                - field assistants and vaccinators

                                - personnel  involved  in food hygiene

From 1996

       FAO/WHO/OIE Animal Health Yearbook disappeared.

       Manpower  data were merged into OIE World Animal Health yearbook and also  transferred  on Internet pages.





TAB. 3



Responsibility: FAO HQs Animal Health Officers (Veterinary Education) Prof.Dr M. Braend and Prof.Dr V. Kouba.

  Ten-months courses for selected specialists from developing countries - future university teachers applying the principle: "Teach teachers to                                                                                                                                                                            teach" the others = multiplying effect.

I. FAO/SIDA International Postgraduate Courses at the Veterinary Faculty, Royal Veterinary and Agriculture University, Uppsala, Sweden:

1. FAO/SIDA international postgraduate courses in Veterinary Pathology

   Course Directors: Prof.Dr G. Winquist and Prof.Dr H.J. Hansen,  assisted by Dr C. Rehbinder

   Period: 1954 - 1985

2. FAO/SIDA international postgraduate courses in Animal Reproduction

   Course Directors:  Prof.Dr Lagerlof and Prof.Dr I. Settergren,   assisted by Dr B. Dannel

   Period: 1954 - 1985

3. Regional FAO/SIDA Follow-up seminars providing updated scientific information and methods to former course participants: in Latin America region, in Asia region and in Africa region for the trainees from the given regions.

II. FAO/DANIDA International postgraduate courses at  the Royal Veterinary and Agriculture University, Copenhagen, Denmark:

  Period: 1969 - 1981

  Coordinators and Secretaries to the Faculty for FAO Fellows: Dr N. Heje, prof.Dr K. Bruhn

1. FAO/DANIDA International postgraduate courses in Preventive Medicine

   Course Directors: Prof. Dr H.C. Adler, Dr E. Knudsen and Prof.Dr Ole Aalund

2. FAO/DANIDA International postgraduate courses in Food hygiene and veterinary public health

   Course Director: Prof.Dr E. Larsen


SIDA   = Swedish International Development Authority

DANIDA = Danish International Development Agency





TAB. 4




Training Manual for Tsetse Control Personnel


Manual for Animal Health Auxiliary Personnel


 Manual for Ticks and Tick-borne Disease Control


 Manual for Rinderpest Campaign Field Personnel

Manual  for Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of African Animal Trypanosomiasis


Manual for the Control of the Screwworm Fly, Cochliomyia  hominivorax


Guidelines for Strengthening Animal Health Services in  Developing Countries


Manual on Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy


A Manual for the Primary Health Care Workers

Training Manual for Tsetse Control Personnel

Manual on Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Control of Helminth Parasites of Ruminants


Veterinary Education


Source: FAO/WHO/OIE Animal Health Yearbook 1990 - 1995.






TAB. 5




The Animal Production and Health Section operated a programme

- to support veterinary services and research institutes in developing countries in establishing

  radio- and enzyme-immunoassay techniques (RIA and ELISA) and DNA probes for diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases.

The support consisted  also in  training fellowships.

To backstop these activities the Section had a Laboratory Unit in Seibersdorf near Vienna (collaborating with internationally recognized institutes) for

  - developing, producing and distributing standardized  diagnostic/seromonitoring kits

  - training scientists from developing countries.

Diagnostic kits for:

- Rinderpest

- Brucellosis

- Trypanosomiasis

- Babesiosis


- Aujeszky's disease

- Bovine leucosis

- Newcastle disease

- Foot-and-mouth disease

- Bluetongue

- Rift Valley Fever

- Tick-borne diseases


- Peste des petits ruminants, etc.

(Note: In 1995 the kits were used in 70 countries).

Examples of programmes:

- Sero-surveillance of Rinderpest and other diseases in Africa using immunoassay techniques

- Improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and   other vector-borne diseases of African livestock  using immunoassay methods

- Regional Network for Latin America on animal disease  diagnosis using immunoassay and labelled DNA  probe techniques

- Strengthening animal disease diagnosis in Asia through the  application of immunoassay techniques






TAB.  6



Type of Animal Health Service (AGAH)                    Source



AGAH Regular Programme                                       FAO regular programme budget


AGAH Technical assistance -

f  i e l d   projects :   

           under FAO Technical Cooperation   Programme (TCP)

                                                                                       FAO regular programme budget    

           under extra-budgetary sources:

                                United Nations Development  Programme (UNDP)  

                                FAO/Government Cooperative  Programme (GCP)

                                Unilateral Trust funds (UTF)

                                Associate Professional Officers' Programme (APO) 

                                FAO's Special Relief  Operations (OSRO)

                                Other United Nations bodies

                                Non-government organizations   (NGO) 

                                Independent foundations

                                Technical Cooperation among  Developing Countries (TCDC)








TAB. 7




“The Consultation recommended the Governments of the Member States of  FAO and WHO as follows:

General recommendations:

1.  Veterinary education should cater for the needs of society and its development programmes and must be adjusted to meet national and international conditions.

2.  Veterinary manpower development should be dealt with as an important integral component of national socio-economic programmes, respecting that the primary role of veterinarians is to assist the production of safe food of animal origin and the protection of human health.

3.  Veterinary education plans and programmes should be periodically reviewed and adjusted to take account of constantly changing technology and scientific progress.

4.  Veterinary schools should give due consideration to the recommendations of previous FAO/WHO Meetings on Veterinary Education together with the recommendations from the present Consultation.”




TAB. 8





“Training and Education in Preventive Veterinary Medicine


1. Adequate coverage of disease prevention should be included in all sections of the curriculum of the veterinary schools. Emphasizing the preventive aspects of veterinary

medicine should form the basis of its teaching.

2.  Students should receive extensive practical training in preventive veterinary medicine in the field.

3. Training in preventive veterinary medicine should also take into account the importance of environmental protection.

4. Preventive veterinary medicine should cater for different stages of development and intensity of animal production and also risk to human and animal health. These aspects may require differing veterinary measures based on careful analysis of any given situation.

5. Students should be trained to appreciate the social background of their community so that they may properly inform that community of preventive veterinary measures and also carry out extension work.

6. Students should be taught to assess the socio-economic effects of animal diseases and corresponding veterinary measures on animal productivity and human welfare.

7. Students should receive adequate training in the various aspects of veterinary preventive medicine including animal production; human and anima health protection; animal reproduction; animal hygiene; food hygiene; veterinary epidemiology or epizootiology; environment protection; disease surveillance and monitoring;  data processing; formulating and conducting effective disease control programmes; veterinary economics, etc. “

8. Training and practice of preventive veterinary medicine should take place in close collaboration with other  professions in the field of animal production and public health.

9. Preventive veterinary medicine research should be encouraged and supported by the provision of adequate facilities.





TAB. 9





Post-graduate veterinary education


1. Post-graduate training (including continuing training and fellowships) should be promoted and given greater emphasis as it represents and important and integral part of veterinary education systems.

2. Continuous training should be undertaken systematically during the whole of a veterinarian’s professional career.

3. Planning and organizing post-graduate courses should be geared to the needs and conditions at national and international level.

4. At international level, courses, reflecting, as far as possible, the needs of all participating countries should be ensured. Teachers should have sufficient background and knowledge of the veterinary problems existing in the countries concerned.

5. Before starting a new international post-graduate programme, appropriate funds should be available to provide sufficient qualified teaching staff, equipment, library services and other necessary facilities.

6. In selecting students for international post-graduate education, due attention should be paid to the particular needs of their countries and should be ensured that candidates have appropriate qualifications and sufficiently high potential to complete and benefit from the courses they will attend.”







TAB. 10



39 participants

Chairman:  Prof. Dr I. Mansson, Sweden


              Dr B. K. Soni, India

              Prof.Dr Aline S. de Aluja, Mexico

              Prof.Dr G.Sakaguchi, Japan

              Prof.Dr G.M. Mugera, Kenya       


              Prof.Dr M. Braend, Norway


              Prof.Dr V. Kouba (Czechoslovakia)

    Other Participants:

              Dr C.D. Hawkins (Australia)

              Prof.Dr M. Vandeplasshe (Belgium)

              Prof.Dr D.G. Howell (Canada)

              Prof.Dr P.R. Greenough (Canada)

              Prof.Dr M.J. Torrres-Anjel (Colombia)

              Dr Juan Dora Pons (Cuba)

              Prof.Dr K. Fouad (Egypt)

              Dr A. Provost (France)

              Dr C. Gall (Germany)

              Prof.Dr Gy Lami (Hungary)

              Prof.Dr H. Ansari (Iran)

              Dr S. Thuraisingham (Malyasia)

              Dr A. A. Ilemobade (Nigeria)

              Prof.Dr W. Barej (Poland)

              Prof.Dr I. Eldisougi Mustafa (Saudi-Arabia)

              Dr S. Touré (Senegal)

              Prof.Dr A. Bane (Sweden)

              Prof. Dr Sir Alexander Robertson (United Kingdom)

              Prof.Dr E.H. Coles (USA)

              Dr A. Arkhipov (USSR)



              Dr R.B. Griffiths, Chief, Animal Health Service

              Mrs. C. Ferrigno  (Admin. Secretary)



              Prof.Dr Z. Matyáš, Chief, Veterinary Public Health

              Dr L. Reinius



              Miss L. Clemedtson, President International Veterinary Students´ Association

              Prof. Dr I. Settergren, Prof.Dr G. Winquist and Dr B. Danell, College of Veterinary Medicine, Uppsala, Sweden

              Dr N.I. Heje, Veterinary Faculty for FAO Fellows, Royal Vet. And Agricult. University, Copenhagen, Denmark

              Prof. Dr B.S. Raya, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India

              Prof.Dr R. Zemjanis, Minnesota, USA







TAB. 11



Year   Country   Total        Government         Private                               Major  country

           reports                                                                                                      missing


1959     107        140391                                                                                      C (China)

1960     106        151255                                                                                           C

1961     112        143650                                                                                           C

1962     103        150297                                                                                           C

1963     107        161702                                                                                           C

1964     116        161921                                                                                           C

1965     123        173736                                                                                           C

1966     126        201434                                                                                           C

1967     131        203645                                                                                           C

1968     137        210614                                                                                           C

1969     141        227016                                                                                           C  

1970     141        232437                                                                                           C

1971     151        240912                                                                                           C

1972     152        236874                                                                                           C

1973     153        253881                                                                                           C 

1974     156        260734                                                                                           C

1975     156        264081                                                                                           C

1976     157        259727                                                                                           C

1977     161        272464                                                                                           C

1978     162        284314                                                                                           C

1979     164        291582                                                                                           C

1980     163        303992                                                                                           C

1981     166        319203                                                                                           C

1982     160        337128                                                                                           C

1983     116        240404               65930               79026                                      C,R (Russia)

1984     136        260711               96372               81581                                         C,R

1985     151        289969             100057             104679                                         C,R

1986     154        310441             110577             107957                                         C,R

1987     160        333424             118909             124426                                         C,R

1988     165        359501             125087             138481                                         C,R

1989     166        383933             130782             145317                                         C,R

1990     165        403924             120642             166545                                         C,R

1991     169        436701             132342             185615                                         C,R

1992     156        417463             128662             181908                                         C,R

1993     135        552331             144888             228697                                         R

1994     110        520263             141317             215676                                         R

1995     132        565500             154126             229956                                         R

1996     140        524342             151529             206761                                         C,R

1997     152        527074             125173             219692                                         C,R

1998     145        530626             153995             226699                                         C,R

1999     128        490668             156344             212286                                      C,R,USA

2000     136        548660             149561             260923                                         C,R ===================================================================================================

Sources” FAO-WHO-OIE Animal Health Yearbook 1959-1995; OIE World Animal Health 1996-2000




TAB. 12




Category                                                                         Number            %   


Government officials

   (central, local)                                                              192020           27.77

Laboratories, universities,

   training institutions                                                      106303           15.38

Private practitioners                                                       320346           46.34   

Others                                                                                72710           10.52


Total                                                                                 691379         100.00


Source: OIE World Animal Health

*)  Complemented by latest  data of countries which didn't send the report for this  year.