Lecture at the XXXIV International Congress on the History of Veterinary Medicine,
Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnía, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, Mexico City, September 24-27, 2003; Proceedings: pages 83-85
HISTORY OF GLOBAL VETERINARY EDUCATION POLICY OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Former: Animal Health Officer (Veterinary Education) and Chief, Animal Health Service, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
The paper is describing the history of the United Nations activities in the field of veterinary education during second half of the 20th century. Soon after the foundation of the United Nations in June 1945 in San Francisco, USA, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), founded in October 1945 in Quebec, Canada, was charged with the responsibility also for global animal health policy, including veterinary education. FAO in close cooperation with the World Health Organization (WHO) was assisting member countries in development of veterinary manpower through veterinary education, training, fellowships, establishing and strengthening veterinary schools, etc. .These activities represented integral components of FAO social, economic and agriculture development policy and of the WHO policy protecting human health, in this case against diseases transmissible from animals.
The paper is based on official FAO documents such as FAO/WHO/OIE Animal Health Yearbooks (1), a variety of FAO technical publications, reports from formal meetings, projects documents, missions reports, periodicals and other FAO HQs documents (2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9), literature sources (10,11) as well as on personal experience of the author as former FAO HQs staff member.
FAO had three major roles in the area of food and agriculture: to act as a center for the collection and analysis of information, to act as an international forum and source of policy advice and to provide its Member Nations with technical assistance. It was furnishing, on request from the governments, specific technical assistance, organizing missions for preparing and executing national and international projects. The highest priority was given to developing countries, particularly those in Africa. The assistance was provided through FAO Regular Programme and FAO-operated field projects.
The assistance of the FAO Regular Programme concerned a great variety of activities including education and training mainly through the FAO Agriculture Education Division with exception of animal health education and training. These were incorporated into the FAO Animal Production and Health Division. There was established a special full-time post of Animal Health Officer (Veterinary Education) who was professionally responsible for all United Nations programmes in this field (E. Knudsen, M. Braend, V. Kouba and J. Wegener). He was supervised initially by the Chief, Livestock Education and Research Service and later by the Chief, Animal Health Service who was responsible for all United Nations animal health programmes. In the middle of the eighties this post was abolished due to economic reasons and the responsibility was transferred into the terms of reference of the Senior Officer (Animal Health) of the same service.
United Nations veterinary education policy, based upon general principles of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), was guided by the recommendations of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultations on Veterinary Education held in 1960 in London, in 1962 in Rome, in 1963 in Rome, in 1965 in Copenhagen, in 1971 in Rome, in 1978 in Uppsala and in 1993 in Rome. The objectives of these consultations were to produce recommendations to serve as international guidelines for the development of veterinary education and training programmes, facilities and staff. As example can be mentioned some recommendations of the Uppsala consultation related to introduction of new subjects in the school curricula: “Students should receive adequate training in the various aspects of veterinary preventive medicine including animal production, human and animal health protection, animal reproduction, animal hygiene, food hygiene, epizootiology or veterinary epidemiology, environment protection, disease surveillance and monitoring, data processing, formulating and conducting effective disease control programmes, veterinary economics, etc.” The consultation held in Rome in 1971 was dedicated to the animal health assistants and their education.
The participants of these consultations were top level experts selected from developed and developing countries of all continents representing teachers and employers of school graduates (e.g., Chief Veterinary Officers). FAO organized also follow-up regional expert consultations (e.g. in Nairobi, Kenya in 1984) to deal with more specific problems of the given continent. Besides above-mentioned general education policy consultations, FAO and WHO were organizing expert consultations on different specific problems of veterinary education (e.g. WHO Consultation on undergraduate and postgraduate teaching in veterinary public health was held in Brno, Czechoslovakia; WHO Consultations on development and training in veterinary epidemiology organized in Teramo, Italy and in Hannover, Germany, etc.).
Particular attention was given to monitor veterinary manpower development at national, regional and global levels. In 1956 FAO started the collection of specific information on the number of veterinarians as the basis for veterinary manpower planning. These data were published in the FAO/WHO/OIE Animal Health Yearbook (founded by H.O. Konigshofer). From 1982 the indicator of total number of veterinarians in individual countries was completed by the numbers of government veterinary officials, veterinarians in laboratories, universities and training institutions and private practitioners. Simultaneously, it was started the collection of data on animal health assistants, field assistants, vaccinators and persons involved in food hygiene. These data facilitated to forecast manpower development as the basis for planning of the education facilities and their capacity development. After the abolishment of the above mentioned yearbook in 1996, these data were published by International Office of Epizootics (OIE) in its yearbook “World Animal Health”.
Special FAO programme was dedicated to analyze the availability of veterinary education and training facilities and to identify the needs for veterinary manpower development in particular regions. (e.g. in 1979 in seven Southern Africa countries - Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, and Zambia - were working only 140 veterinarians including 30 nationals). These analyses served for FAO planning to establish new schools (e.g. new veterinary faculty built in Lusaka, Zambia with financial support of Japanese government; new school for animal health assistants of Persian Golf states built in Al-Hofuf, Saudi Arabia operated by FAO and financed by Saudi government, etc.) and to strengthen existing ones (e.g. FAO projects assisting veterinary faculties in Afghanistan, Morocco, Mozambique, Sri Lanka, Uganda, Uruguay, etc.). In all these projects FAO provided also assistance in teaching, education programmes and syllabi development considering always local needs and conditions stressing the importance of population and preventive medicine as well as strong practical training.
Professional literature, teaching material, equipment and facilities for practical exercises were provided in the majority of education and training projects. FAO provided member countries with top level international experts to teach at veterinary schools (mainly university teachers) and at international and national postgraduate training courses. Other assistance consisted in sending consultants to help member countries to elaborate and develop national education programmes. FAO was providing on request external examiners for final examinations at some schools of developing countries.
Very important for new diagnostic technology transfer were the courses organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Animal production and Health Division in Vienna, Austria and in different regions and countries. FAO organized also specialized postgraduate training courses of high level. Of particular importance were the courses for future university professors ("teach teachers to teach"). The most important were FAO/DANIDA (Danish International Development Agency) International Postgraduate Courses in preventive medicine and in food hygiene and veterinary public health at Copenhagen Agriculture University (at the "Faculty for FAO Fellows"), Denmark and FAO/SIDA (Swedish International Development Authority) International Postgraduate Courses in veterinary pathology and in animal reproduction at Uppsala University, Sweden. Follow-up seminars were organized by FAO/SIDA in individual continents for the ex-participants to update their knowledge (e.g. Latin America follow-up seminars in veterinary pathology at National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico, in animal reproduction in Lima, Peru, etc.; African follow-up seminars in veterinary pathology and animal reproduction at Nairobi University, Kenya, etc.; Asian follow-up seminars in veterinary pathology at Kasetsrat University, Thailand, in animal reproduction in Lahore, Pakistan and Tirupati, India, etc.).
For the preparedness of veterinary services to be able to cope with emergency situation in case of the introduction of very dangerous diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and diseases which could be abused for international bioterrorism, FAO organized so called “simulation exercises”. As examples can be mentioned simulation exercises for Latin America in Colombia and Uruguay in 1982, for Mediterranean countries in Italy in 1990, for Southeastern European countries in Bulgaria in 1995, for Central and Eastern European countries in Poland in 1998 and in Czech Republic in 2001. Several training courses in vaccine production and control were organized mainly in African Region (e.g. in Debre-Zeit, Ethiopia and in Nairobi, Kenya).
In all major United Nations animal health field projects were included training components to prepare national counterpart staff to be able to continue coping with the particular problems after ending international assistance. Similar purpose had FAO study tours of national counterpart persons to be acquainted within the experience in other countries. There were also relatively small animal health projects consisted exclusively in training of selected persons for specific national tasks.
FAO provided thousands of fellowships for the students from developing countries (e.g. in 1979 was offered 99 veterinary fellowships) in selected institutions and schools of developed world (e.g., Reading University and Edinburgh University, UK, California University, USA, Veterinary faculty and Institut d´élevage et de medicine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux (IEMVT) Maisons-Alfort, France, etc.). The fellowships were of different durations (up to many years) and levels (up to PhD study). Training courses were organized also at FAO and/or WHO Collaborating Centres and Reference Laboratories located in all continents. As examples can be mentioned WHO/PAHO (Pan-American Health Organization) training courses and fellowships at PANAFTOSA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil preparing specialists for the diagnosis and control of vesicular diseases; similar importance had the training at Pirbright , United Kingdom as FAO/OIE world reference laboratory for foot-and-mouth disease and other very dangerous diseases. As other regional training center can be mentioned Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Centre in Athens, Greece. Newly trained specialists brought to their home countries significant professional knowledge and transferring it through local training on the others multiplied fellowship effect.
WHO in cooperation with FAO published in 1973 World Directory of Veterinary Schools and in 1974 World Directory of Schools for Animal Health Assistants. The FAO Animal Health Service was represented also in the Education Committee of the World Veterinary Organization (WVA) to coordinate their activities in this field.
FAO and WHO produced many textbooks and manuals for education and training of veterinary staff. As example can be mentioned manuals: for training in tse-tse and trypanosomiasis control, in screwworm control, in ticks and tick-borne diseases control, in rinderpest control, in rabies control, in brucellosis control, salmonelloses control, in tropical helminthiases control, in food hygiene (e.g., Foodborne disease: a focus for health education, WHO, 2000), in viral, bacterial and parasitic zoonoses diagnosis and control, in veterinary public health, in primary health care, etc.; for training of animal health assistants, etc. Special publication for the teachers of veterinary epidemiology was produced by WHO, FAO and Italian experts in 1997 (published in Teramo as “Manual for teaching of basic veterinary epidemiology” and financed by Italian government). Very useful was lending service of FAO central library and film archive.
FAO had three finance sources for its field projects: its own Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP) which was funded from the Organization's Regular Programme budget, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Trust funds (TF), mainly FAO/Government Cooperative Programme (GCP). GCP assistance was provided by industrialized countries or institutions such as development banks. Donors frequently chose to take advantage of FAO´s technical expertise, trained personnel and language skills needed to operate effectively with the countries of their choice. FAO as an objective and neutral source of advice was offering: the preparation of cost/effective project proposals; the ability to run project efficiently; a large international roster of experts on which to draw for field staff; accurate and timely reporting on project finance and progress and appropriate operational and technical “backstopping” by Headquarters services. FAO was serving always as executing technical agency.
1. FAO (1956-1996) - FAO/WHO/OIE Animal Health Yearbook, Rome.
2. FAO (1977-2000) Animal Production and Health Papers, FAO Technical Papers, Rome.
3. FAO (1978-1990) - AGA Information Notes, Rome.
4. FAO (1980-1995) - World Animal Review, Rome.
5. FAO (1991) - Guidelines for strengthening animal health services in developing countries. Rome, 141 pp.
6. FAO (1998-2000) - EMPRESS Transboundary Animal Disease Bulletin, Rome.
7. FAO/IAEA (1998-2001) - Animal Production and Health Newsletter, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, IAEA, Vienna.
8. FAO-WHO Expert Consultations on Veterinary Education, 1960-1993
9. Kouba V. & col. (1990) - FAO Animal Health Service Autoevaluation, FAO, Rome, 9 pp.
10. Kouba V. (1997) - Contribution of Veterinary Services to Economic Development and Protection of Human Health - Historical Aspects. World Vet. Assoc. Bul., Vol. 14: 78-83.
11. Lamm C.G. (1994) - The History of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and its Allied Laboratory (1964- 1994), International Atomic Energy Agency, Viena, 186 pp.
Note: Text is available also on World Veterinary Association website: www.worldvet.org/docs/wvauneduvet.doc - archive 424
FAO/WHO EXPERT CONSULTATIONS ON VETERINARY EDUCATION
First International Meeting on Veterinary Education, held in London from 25 to 30 April 1960
First Meeting of the FAO/WHO Expert Panel on Veterinary Education, held in Rome from 14 to 23 March 1962
Second Meeting of the FAO/WHO Expert Panel on Veterinary Education, held in Rome from 23 April to 2 May 1963
Second FAO/WHO International Meeting on Veterinary Education, held in Copenhagen from 12 to 21 August 1965
Third Meeting of the FAO/WHO Expert Panel on Veterinary Education, held in Rome from 12 to 16 July 1971
Fourth Meeting of the FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Veterinary Education held in Uppsala from 28 August to 2 September 1978
Fifth Meeting of the FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Veterinary Education held in Rome from 7 to 10 September 1993
HISTORY OF THE FAO-OIE-WHO ANIMAL HEALTH YEARBOOK DATA ON
VETERINARY MANPOWER IN THE WORLD - INDICATORS
Total number of veterinarians
Professional and Technical Veterinary Manpower
Number of veterinarians :
- government officers (central, local)
- in laboratories, universities and training institutions
- private practitioners
Animal health auxiliary personnel
Number of :
– animal health assistants
- field assistants and vaccinators
- personnel involved in food hygiene
FAO/WHO/OIE Animal Health Yearbook disappeared.
Manpower data were merged into OIE World Animal Health yearbook and also transferred on Internet pages.
HISTORY OF FAO TOP LEVEL ANIMAL HEALTH COURSES FOR SPECIALISTS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Responsibility: FAO HQs Animal Health Officers (Veterinary Education) Prof.Dr M. Braend and Prof.Dr V. Kouba.
Ten-months courses for selected specialists from developing countries - future university teachers applying the principle: "Teach teachers to teach" the others = multiplying effect.
I. FAO/SIDA International Postgraduate Courses at the Veterinary Faculty, Royal Veterinary and Agriculture University, Uppsala, Sweden:
1. FAO/SIDA international postgraduate courses in Veterinary Pathology
Course Directors: Prof.Dr G. Winquist and Prof.Dr H.J. Hansen, assisted by Dr C. Rehbinder
Period: 1954 - 1985
2. FAO/SIDA international postgraduate courses in Animal Reproduction
Course Directors: Prof.Dr Lagerlof and Prof.Dr I. Settergren, assisted by Dr B. Dannel
Period: 1954 - 1985
3. Regional FAO/SIDA Follow-up seminars providing updated scientific information and methods to former course participants: in Latin America region, in Asia region and in Africa region for the trainees from the given regions.
II. FAO/DANIDA International postgraduate courses at the Royal Veterinary and Agriculture University, Copenhagen, Denmark:
Period: 1969 - 1981
Coordinators and Secretaries to the Faculty for FAO Fellows: Dr N. Heje, prof.Dr K. Bruhn
1. FAO/DANIDA International postgraduate courses in Preventive Medicine
Course Directors: Prof. Dr H.C. Adler, Dr E. Knudsen and Prof.Dr Ole Aalund
2. FAO/DANIDA International postgraduate courses in Food hygiene and veterinary public health
Course Director: Prof.Dr E. Larsen
SIDA = Swedish International Development Authority
DANIDA = Danish International Development Agency
HISTORY OF FAO PUBLICATIONS AND DOCUMENTS RELATED TO ANIMAL HEALTH EDUCATION AND TRAINING DURING 1982-1995 - EXAMPLES
Training Manual for Tsetse Control Personnel
Manual for Animal Health Auxiliary Personnel
Manual for Ticks and Tick-borne Disease Control
Manual for Rinderpest Campaign Field Personnel
Manual for Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of African Animal Trypanosomiasis
Manual for the Control of the Screwworm Fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax
Guidelines for Strengthening Animal Health Services in Developing Countries
Manual on Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
A Manual for the Primary Health Care Workers
Training Manual for Tsetse Control Personnel
Manual on Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Control of Helminth Parasites of Ruminants
Source: FAO/WHO/OIE Animal Health Yearbook 1990 - 1995.
JOINT FAO/IAEA DIVISION OF NUCLEAR TECHNIQUES IN FOOD AND
AGRICULTURE, VIENNA, AUSTRIA
The Animal Production and Health Section operated a programme
- to support veterinary services and research institutes in developing countries in establishing
radio- and enzyme-immunoassay techniques (RIA and ELISA) and DNA probes for diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases.
The support consisted also in training fellowships.
To backstop these activities the Section had a Laboratory Unit in Seibersdorf near Vienna (collaborating with internationally recognized institutes) for
- developing, producing and distributing standardized diagnostic/seromonitoring kits
- training scientists from developing countries.
Diagnostic kits for:
- Aujeszky's disease
- Bovine leucosis
- Newcastle disease
- Foot-and-mouth disease
- Rift Valley Fever
- Tick-borne diseases
- Peste des petits ruminants, etc.
(Note: In 1995 the kits were used in 70 countries).
Examples of programmes:
- Sero-surveillance of Rinderpest and other diseases in Africa using immunoassay techniques
- Improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods
- Regional Network for Latin America on animal disease diagnosis using immunoassay and labelled DNA probe techniques
- Strengthening animal disease diagnosis in Asia through the application of immunoassay techniques
FINANCIAL SOURCES FOR FAO ANIMAL HEALTH EDUCATION ACTIVITIES
Type of Animal Health Service (AGAH) Source
AGAH Regular Programme FAO regular programme budget
AGAH Technical assistance -
f i e l d projects :
under FAO Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP)
FAO regular programme budget
under extra-budgetary sources:
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
FAO/Government Cooperative Programme (GCP)
Unilateral Trust funds (UTF)
Associate Professional Officers' Programme (APO)
FAO's Special Relief Operations (OSRO)
Other United Nations bodies
Non-government organizations (NGO)
Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries (TCDC)
RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE FOURTH MEETING ON THE FAO/WHO
EXPERT CONSULTATION ON VETERINARY EDUCATION , 1978 - I
“The Consultation recommended the Governments of the Member States of FAO and WHO as follows:
1. Veterinary education should cater for the needs of society and its development programmes and must be adjusted to meet national and international conditions.
2. Veterinary manpower development should be dealt with as an important integral component of national socio-economic programmes, respecting that the primary role of veterinarians is to assist the production of safe food of animal origin and the protection of human health.
3. Veterinary education plans and programmes should be periodically reviewed and adjusted to take account of constantly changing technology and scientific progress.
4. Veterinary schools should give due consideration to the recommendations of previous FAO/WHO Meetings on Veterinary Education together with the recommendations from the present Consultation.”
RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE FOURTH MEETING ON THE FAO/WHO
EXPERT CONSULTATION ON VETERINARY EDUCATION , 1978 - II
“Training and Education in Preventive Veterinary Medicine
1. Adequate coverage of disease prevention should be included in all sections of the curriculum of the veterinary schools. Emphasizing the preventive aspects of veterinary
medicine should form the basis of its teaching.
2. Students should receive extensive practical training in preventive veterinary medicine in the field.
3. Training in preventive veterinary medicine should also take into account the importance of environmental protection.
4. Preventive veterinary medicine should cater for different stages of development and intensity of animal production and also risk to human and animal health. These aspects may require differing veterinary measures based on careful analysis of any given situation.
5. Students should be trained to appreciate the social background of their community so that they may properly inform that community of preventive veterinary measures and also carry out extension work.
6. Students should be taught to assess the socio-economic effects of animal diseases and corresponding veterinary measures on animal productivity and human welfare.
7. Students should receive adequate training in the various aspects of veterinary preventive medicine including animal production; human and anima health protection; animal reproduction; animal hygiene; food hygiene; veterinary epidemiology or epizootiology; environment protection; disease surveillance and monitoring; data processing; formulating and conducting effective disease control programmes; veterinary economics, etc. “
8. Training and practice of preventive veterinary medicine should take place in close collaboration with other professions in the field of animal production and public health.
9. Preventive veterinary medicine research should be encouraged and supported by the provision of adequate facilities.
RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE FOURTH MEETING ON THE FAO/WHO
EXPERT CONSULTATION ON VETERINARY EDUCATION , 1978 - III
“Post-graduate veterinary education
1. Post-graduate training (including continuing training and fellowships) should be promoted and given greater emphasis as it represents and important and integral part of veterinary education systems.
2. Continuous training should be undertaken systematically during the whole of a veterinarian’s professional career.
3. Planning and organizing post-graduate courses should be geared to the needs and conditions at national and international level.
4. At international level, courses, reflecting, as far as possible, the needs of all participating countries should be ensured. Teachers should have sufficient background and knowledge of the veterinary problems existing in the countries concerned.
5. Before starting a new international post-graduate programme, appropriate funds should be available to provide sufficient qualified teaching staff, equipment, library services and other necessary facilities.
6. In selecting students for international post-graduate education, due attention should be paid to the particular needs of their countries and should be ensured that candidates have appropriate qualifications and sufficiently high potential to complete and benefit from the courses they will attend.”
FOURTH MEETING OF THE FAO/WHO EXPERT CONSULTATION ON VETERINARY EDUCATION, HELD IN UPPSALA, SWEDEN, 28/8-2/9 1978
Chairman: Prof. Dr I. Mansson, Sweden
Dr B. K. Soni, India
Prof.Dr Aline S. de Aluja, Mexico
Prof.Dr G.Sakaguchi, Japan
Prof.Dr G.M. Mugera, Kenya
Prof.Dr M. Braend, Norway
Prof.Dr V. Kouba (Czechoslovakia)
Dr C.D. Hawkins (Australia)
Prof.Dr M. Vandeplasshe (Belgium)
Prof.Dr D.G. Howell (Canada)
Prof.Dr P.R. Greenough (Canada)
Prof.Dr M.J. Torrres-Anjel (Colombia)
Dr Juan Dora Pons (Cuba)
Prof.Dr K. Fouad (Egypt)
Dr A. Provost (France)
Dr C. Gall (Germany)
Prof.Dr Gy Lami (Hungary)
Prof.Dr H. Ansari (Iran)
Dr S. Thuraisingham (Malyasia)
Dr A. A. Ilemobade (Nigeria)
Prof.Dr W. Barej (Poland)
Prof.Dr I. Eldisougi Mustafa (Saudi-Arabia)
Dr S. Touré (Senegal)
Prof.Dr A. Bane (Sweden)
Prof. Dr Sir Alexander Robertson (United Kingdom)
Prof.Dr E.H. Coles (USA)
Dr A. Arkhipov (USSR)
Dr R.B. Griffiths, Chief, Animal Health Service
Mrs. C. Ferrigno (Admin. Secretary)
Prof.Dr Z. Matyáš, Chief, Veterinary Public Health
Dr L. Reinius
Miss L. Clemedtson, President International Veterinary Students´ Association
Prof. Dr I. Settergren, Prof.Dr G. Winquist and Dr B. Danell, College of Veterinary Medicine, Uppsala, Sweden
Dr N.I. Heje, Veterinary Faculty for FAO Fellows, Royal Vet. And Agricult. University, Copenhagen, Denmark
Prof. Dr B.S. Raya, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India
Prof.Dr R. Zemjanis, Minnesota, USA
HISTORY OF GLOBAL VETERINARY EDUCATION “PRODUCT” – NUMBER OF VETERINARIANS IN THE WORLD AS REPORTED BY THE COUNTRIES
Year Country Total Government Private Major country
1959 107 140391 C (China)
1960 106 151255 C
1961 112 143650 C
1962 103 150297 C
1963 107 161702 C
1964 116 161921 C
1965 123 173736 C
1966 126 201434 C
1967 131 203645 C
1968 137 210614 C
1969 141 227016 C
1970 141 232437 C
1971 151 240912 C
1972 152 236874 C
1973 153 253881 C
1974 156 260734 C
1975 156 264081 C
1976 157 259727 C
1977 161 272464 C
1978 162 284314 C
1979 164 291582 C
1980 163 303992 C
1981 166 319203 C
1982 160 337128 C
1983 116 240404 65930 79026 C,R (Russia)
1984 136 260711 96372 81581 C,R
1985 151 289969 100057 104679 C,R
1986 154 310441 110577 107957 C,R
1987 160 333424 118909 124426 C,R
1988 165 359501 125087 138481 C,R
1989 166 383933 130782 145317 C,R
1990 165 403924 120642 166545 C,R
1991 169 436701 132342 185615 C,R
1992 156 417463 128662 181908 C,R
1993 135 552331 144888 228697 R
1994 110 520263 141317 215676 R
1995 132 565500 154126 229956 R
1996 140 524342 151529 206761 C,R
1997 152 527074 125173 219692 C,R
1998 145 530626 153995 226699 C,R
1999 128 490668 156344 212286 C,R,USA
2000 136 548660 149561 260923 C,R ===================================================================================================
Sources” FAO-WHO-OIE Animal Health Yearbook 1959-1995; OIE World Animal Health 1996-2000
GLOBAL NUMBER OF VETERINARIANS IN THE WORLD AS REPORTED BY
INDIVIDUAL COUNTRIES FOR THE YEAR 2000 *)
Category Number %
(central, local) 192020 27.77
training institutions 106303 15.38
Private practitioners 320346 46.34
Others 72710 10.52
Total 691379 100.00
Source: OIE World Animal Health
*) Complemented by latest data of countries which didn't send the report for this year.