SYLLABUS FOR UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION AND POSTGRADUATE TRAINING IN GENERAL EPIZOOTIOLOGY
Prof.Dr. V. Kouba, DrSc.
a) will know characteristics of epizootiological importance of: etiological agents, animal populations and environment, infection and epizootic processes, influencing factors, diseases common to man and animals and consequences of animal population health and diseases;
b) will know how and be able to: monitor, survey, investigate and analyze epizootiological situation, detect and isolate outbreaks, define and apply effective control measures, solve animal population health/disease problems, elaborate strategy and programmes for population health protection and restoration at local and territorial levels as well as evaluate the results.
Definition: Epizootiology is a science which studies origin, frequency, distribution, development, determinants and extinction of animal health and disease at population level and based on their analyses defines and applies methods for creation, promotion, protection and restoration of population health by reducing, eliminating and eradicating diseases.
1. Epizootiology: definition, objectives, objects, methods, types, use, division, relations to other sciences.
2. Animal population and its features of epizootiological importance: numbers, species, categories, structure, dynamics, development, replacement, breeding, movement, behaviour, space and time aspects; population measurement indicators.
3. Animal population disease resistance: general resistance, inherent and acquired specific resistance; population resistance structure; resistance measurement indicators.
4. Animal population health and disease: definitions, features, criteria, epizootiological health and disease.
5. Animal population collective health: process, types, stages, forms, occurrence, space and time aspects; health measurement indicators: prevalence, incidence and extinction of healthy animals; viability indicators.
6. Animal population morbidity and mortality: general and specific morbidity, prevalence, incidence and extinction of diseased, morbidity indicators; general, specific, natural, artificial and neonatal mortality, fatality, mortality indicators.
7. Animal population epizootiological structure: etiological, clinical and epizootiological aspects; parts of epiz. healthy, indeterminate and epiz. non-healthy animals; structure analysis.
8. Etiological agents and their features of epizootiological importance: biological (specificity, pathogenicity, infectivity, virulence, tropism, selectivity, adaptability, reproducibility, heritability, immunogenicity, tenacity, transmissibility, life cycle, variability, conditionally pathogenic microbes, etc.); genetic and physical factors; chemical agents; etiological complexes.
9. Sources of etiological agents and their features of epizootiological importance: quality, quantity, space and time aspects; types - animals, man, vectors, animal products, substances, environment, etc.
10. Transmission of etiological agents: characteristics, consequences, primary and secondary ways, range, intensity, space and time aspects, natural and artificial, horizontal and vertical, active and passive, direct and indirect ways; by animals, humans, vectors, animal products, substances, etc.
11. Natural environment: influences upon epizootiological situation, animal populations, etiological agents and their vectors; atmospheric, geospheric, hydrospheric, biospheric (biosphere, ecosystem, biocoenosis); nutritional factors.
12. Interaction animal - etiological agents - environment: etiological triad, route of entry of etiological agents; infection process (course, stages, forms, dynamics, outcomes); emerging diseases; classification; non-infection diseases.
13. Epizootic process: characteristics, epizootiological triad, epiz. chain, course, stages, forms, range, intensity, grades (sporadic occurrence, enzootics, epizootics, panzootics), space and time aspects, dynamics, trend, outcomes; classification; epizootic process of non-infectious diseases.
14. Disease nidality: characteristics, foci etiology, forms, space and time aspects; natural nidality - circulation of etiological agents, biotic and territorial structure, biotype changes, diseases with natural nidality; nidality indicators.
15. Zoonoses: characteristics, human population features and exposition; sources and transmission of common etiological agents; particularity of zoonoses process; list of zoonoses.
16. Economic and social factors influencing epizootic process: economic level, urbanization, transport, trade, tourism, rural development, economic activities, animal breeding and production, technology, hygiene, etc.; social factors.
17. Consequences of animal population health and disease: characteristics, benefit of health, losses due to diseases; biological, public health, economic and social consequences.
18. Investigation of epizootiological situation: principles, types, field survey and mass screening; tests, their specificity and sensitivity; epizootiological investigation methods and diagnosis; sampling methods in epizootiology.
19. Epizootiological information system: objectives, data; data sources, reporting, collection and processing; local, national and international systems; use of computer information technology.
20. Analysis of epizootiological situation: principles, types, evaluation of epizootiological phenomena (measurement of frequency distribution, space and time aspects, etc.) - epizootiological. diagnosis; analysis indicators; presentation and use.
21. Epizootiological monitoring and surveillance: principles, objects, methods, management, results interpretation and use.
22. Epizootiological theory, experiments and studies: epizootiological theory, hypothesis, prognosis, modeling; epizootiological experiment principles, types, field trials design and evaluation; epizootiological study principles, types and design; bias.
23. Epizootiological strategy and measures: principles, priorities, objectives and types; influencing factors - biological, economic, public health and social; disease management; decision analysis and decision making.
24. Active creation of animal population health: principles; creation of new healthy generation; creation of new healthy herds/flocks in new and depopulated places; creation and management of specific diseases free herds and zones.
25. General preventive measures: principles; regulation of animal breeding, production, selection, nutrition, management; hygiene, health control, prophylactic measures, sanitation; measures against disease introduction; measures against bioterrorism.
26. Specific preventive measures: reinforcement of specific resistance using genetic methods and vaccinations (programmes, control, evaluation); measurement indicators.
27. Epizootiological protection of country territory: principles, measures at frontier posts, along the borders; measures related to import - risk assessment, import conditions, certificate control, measures at import quarantine and destination places.
28. Animal population general health restoration: principles, breeding and technology correction, resistance reinforcement, sanitation, elimination and treatment of diseased animals.
29. Animal population specific health restoration: principles, objectives, outbreaks discovery and first measures, intrafocal and perifocal measures, methods of disease detaining, reduction, elimination and eradication; posteradication measures.
30. Measures against zoonoses: principles, objectives, methods of protection of animals and man against zoonoses, common animal and human health services measures.
31. Epizootiological sanitation: principles, objectives, objects; preventive and intrafocal sanitation; space and time aspects; disinfection; measures against vectors and reservoirs of etiological agents; disposal of dead animals.
32. Planning of epizootiological measures: principles; project design - objectives, outputs, activities, inputs, budget, clearance.
33. Organization of epizootiological measures: structure, manpower, facilities, material, funds, legislation, extension, etc.
34. Result and efficiency of epizootiological programmes: principles, biological, economic, public health and social results; programme efficiency - benefit/cost analysis.
35. Computer technology applicable in epizootiology: INTERNET; software for epizootiological information (HANDISTAT, etc.), for analyses and problem solutions (EPIZOO, etc.).
Practical exercises ("learning by doing")
Field exercises: at selected ranches/farms, villages or districts under real or simulated conditions.
Indoor exercises dealing with populations/territory real or simulated problems (using also appropriate software).
1. Field: analysis of local populations characteristics of epizootiological importance: size, structure, production, reproduction, conditions, etc. using relevant indicators, topographical schemes and graphs.
2. Analysis of territorial population characteristics of epizootiological importance: size, structure, production, reproduction, conditions, etc. using relevant indicators, maps and graphs.
3. Field: analysis of local general epizootiological situation - investigate animals, collect multiple specimens, identify health problems/priority, elaborate schemes and tables; use of animal health/disease indicators; elaborate certificates as required for trade and export.
4. Analysis of general epizootiological situation in a given territory: process available results of field and laboratory investigations; identify priority health/disease problems and specific diseases free zones; use relevant animal population health/disease indicators; elaborate maps, graphs and report.
5. Field: analysis of local specific epizootiological situation in an outbreak - investigate animals, collect specimens; identify diseased, suspect and under risk animals, sources, ways of transmission of etiological agents; identify critical places and moments; elaborate morbidity and mortality rates; elaborate intrafocal and perifocal areas schemes and situation report.
6. Analysis of a specific disease(s) situation in a given territory, evaluate field and laboratory investigations results, identify affected and under risk zones, risk of disease spreading; use relevant indicators (morbidity, mortality, etc.); elaborate maps, graphs and situation report.
7. Field: economic analysis of local direct and indirect benefit of collective health and losses due to general and specific morbidity using relevant indicators; elaborate report.
8. Territorial economic analysis of direct and indirect benefit of collective health and losses due to general and specific morbidity using relevant indicators; elaborate report.
9. Field: assess diseases introduction risk, elaborate local programme of epizootiological measures for protection and improvement of population health (reduction of losses).
10. Elaborate territorial strategy and programme for protection and improvement of population health (losses reduction and protection of man against zoonoses); assess diseases introduction risk through national trade and import.
11. Field: simulation exercise - suspicion or case of a very dangerous disease - investigate local epizootiological situation, identify affected, suspect and threatened animals, apply initial isolation measures, decide on provisional diagnosis (considering dif. diag.), identify sources and ways of transmission, collect specimens, delimitate intrafocal and perifocal areas, identify critical places and moments, elaborate intrafocal and perifocal measures; use schemes, maps; elaborate case report.
12. Simulation exercise: case of a very dangerous disease: delimitate perifocal and protection zones (use schemes, maps), elaborate strategy/measures against disease spreading, of eradication and surveillance; identify necessary inputs and management.
13. Elaborate long-term programme for a chronic specific disease (preferably zoonosis) reduction/eradication and surveillance including necessary inputs and management.
14. Evaluate results and efficiency of epizootiological programme and measures including benefit/cost calculation using available local and territorial data.
Note: Special Epizootiology applies principles and methods of General Epizootiology on individual specific health and diseases, on individual animal species and on particular environmental conditions.
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1. CENTAUR: http://www.vri.cz/centaur.htm
2. EMPRESS: http://www.fao.org/empress
3. EPIZOO: http://www.who.int/emc/diseases/zoo/epizoo.html (up to 2005)
4. EPIZOOTIOLOGY: http://www.cbox.cz/vaclavkouba/
5. FAOSTAT: http://www.fao.org/
6. HANDISTAT: http://www.oie.int/
7. OIE operational data: http://www.oie.int/
8. ZOONOSES: http://www.who.int/emc/diseases/zoo