6 May 2005                        Last modification on 12 January 2008

 

 

Methods of accelerated eradication of tuberculosis in cattle population at a country level

V. Kouba

Formerly: Vice-Director and Chief Epizootiologist, Czechoslovak and Czech State Veterinary Service; Professor of Epizootiology, Brno University of Veterinary Sciences; Chief, Animal Health Service, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Summary

A method of accelerated territorial eradication of tuberculosis in cattle population was developed and applied in the Czech Republic, where livestock was reared primarily in large-scale units. Before this method was started, annual economic losses were higher than US$ 100 million and thousands of people suffered from Mycobacterium bovis. Initial mass allergic testing in 1959 confirmed that this disease was spread in all the regions and in almost all major ranches. The revealed situation was  disastrous: bovine tuberculosis prevalence  reached 21.03 % and in cows even 32.26 %, i.e. every third cow in the whole country had tuberculosis as it was also confirmed in slaughterhouses. Systematic investigations detected  a l l  affected herds what represented key condition for cattle tuberculosis eradication. An accelerated eradication policy was applied with the aim to reach zero prevalence by a fixed deadline – end of 1968. Affected herds were recovered through “test and slaughter” method or replaced by healthy cattle from tuberculosis-free farms, ranches and regions.  Since then, the point prevalence of tuberculosis in cattle population has been maintained at zero level. The eradication was achieved within one cattle generation, without reducing national cattle population size, production of beef and milk and farmers’ income. The cumulative benefit/cost ratio reached at the end of the programme 3 : 1 and ten years after the tuberculosis eradication 9 : 1. Post-eradication surveillance based on mass tuberculin testing was confirming continuous tuberculosis-free status in cattle population. The eradication of tuberculosis in cattle country population resulted in an increase in cattle production and trade. Up to year 2000, the eradication had averted  losses of approximately US$ 3700 million and saved thousands of people from becoming affected by this zoonosis. The eradication programme was successfully implemented simultaneously also in Slovak Republic applying the same methods and objectives and thus reaching zero prevalence in all Czechoslovak territory.

1. Introduction

1.1 Epizootiological situation                                                                                                                                 

a) The Czech Republic comprises an area of 78,858 km2 with ten million inhabitants and about three million head of cattle (in 1960). Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis had been reported since 1897, affecting mainly large-scale ranches located in the fertile lowlands with high concentration of dairy cows. During first half of 2Oth century there were endless discussions on the need to eradicate bovine tuberculosis however without any practical action due to missing necessary conditions. First analysis and proposals for bovine tuberculosis control and eradication was presented by Prof. Dr Antonín Klobouk at Czechoslovak Scientific Anti-tuberculosis Congress in 1923 (Masaryk’s League Against Tuberculosis) where he suggested national anti-tb programme using “test and slaughter” method and isolated breeding of newborn calves from TB cows (Bang 1909 method) *). During and after the Second World War the situation became even worse due to uncontrollable movements of cattle, lack of veterinary control and  post-war UNRRA (United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration) help consisting also in sending free of charge during 1945-1947 ten-thousands of cattle from several European countries being not so much affected by the war. Many of these animals were infected by tuberculosis  helping unconsciously (or consciously ?) to “clean” donor country cattle population. Even during the 50s, as the consequence of the urgent need to increase milk supply, there were even used  for further exploitation thousands of cows imported for slaughter (culled due to different reasons, including tuberculosis) considered to be still suitable for milk production. That time the programme of cattle concentration into major cooperatives, often mixing healthy and TB cattle due to lack of  necessary tuberculin testing and anti/epizootic veterinary measures as well as shortage of veterinary staff and service infrastructure, contributed to the worsening of TB epizootiological situation. Allergic testing up to 1952 was only ad hoc without any follow-up effective measures.

*) Note: During the discussion Prof.Dr Klobouk insisted that the anti-tb programme must be  organized by the state and not only on individual voluntary base. MVDr František Voráček, Ministerial Councillor, Ministry of Agriculture did not agree: “The suggested measures are ideal, however it would ask from the  state enormous apparat and therefore this kind of programme is not real.”

b) Spreading  M. bovis was also facilitated  thanks to the weakness of  veterinary service. It was not able to control TB epizootiological situation as a result of insufficient staff  (during 6 years of the war all Czech universities were closed by German occupants). Limited number of veterinarians was mostly in private sector and government service was not able to control the situation and to organize any effective nation-wide recovery actions.

c) Mandatory reporting bovine TB cases was introduced in 1952 when all veterinary service staff was transferred into government service. It was consolidated into a more effective organization gradually supported by more facilities and funds. It took years to get necessary experience and ability to control epizootiological situation in the whole country.

d) Despite all the efforts and measures applied, bovine tuberculosis situation worsened thanks to many new diseased animals and newly detected outbreaks. The measures such as isolation of TB animals and herds, as well as veterinary control of cattle movement and trade were very often not perfect. The isolation measures complicating husbandry and trade were demanding, costly and difficult to sustain over a prolonged period. False negative results of tuberculin tests also contributed to bovine TB spread. Continuing exposure of animals and people caused new cases, thus aggravating the situation. Consequently, the eradication, particularly in larger tuberculosis ranches often affected also with brucellosis,  required a more demanding approach.

e) The deterioration can be documented by the tuberculin test results: in 1953 there were carried out 598,310 tests, i.e. ratio tests/population = 0.2107, detecting 110,839 positive reactors, i.e. 18.5 %. In 1958 there were reported 497,006 TB cattle new cases and in 1959 even 628,276 cases in almost all villages.

1.2 Economic consequences

 Direct and indirect annual economic losses in the livestock husbandry and trade were estimated to be more than US$ 103 million. +) Direct quantifiable losses in livestock production were calculated to be about 20,000 MT meat (US$ 18,670,000).  and  more than 300 million litres of milk (US$ 54,713,000).  Indirect economic losses in livestock were estimated to be about US$ 15,000,000. Other losses due to extraordinary measures and government financial help provided by the government to livestock producers, together with particular contributions by  central insurance agency, were estimated to be of US$ 15,490,000.

+) US$  1 =  10 Kcs (Czechoslovak crowns)

1.3 Public health consequences

In the human population, in addition to estimated thousands chronically suffering from bovine tuberculosis, many new cases were reported as a consequence of exposure to affected animals in TB farms or slaughterhouses and due to consumption of infected or contaminated milk or milk products. As a result of the lack of discovery and isolation of all TB milking cow herds it couldn’t be avoided mixing milk originated from healthy cows and from TB cows. Obligatory pasteurization of milk for public distribution was not yet introduced and milk sterilization by heat before consumption was not any general custom. Under these conditions M. bovis had the chance of  spreading among human population, mainly among the children.

1.4 Trade consequences

a) Bovine TB seriously affected national trade in animals and animal products (meat, milk) not only thanks to extraordinary direct losses in  farms and ranches but also thanks to reducing their selling chance. They could sell under restricted conditions only limited number of cattle and amount of cattle products, if not being prohibited due to disease situation. The income of TB affected herd farmers was significantly lower in comparison with TB-free herd farmers.

b) TB affected farms and ranches were prohibited to export animals and animal products in spite of having also high yielding tuberculin negative cattle and their sterilized  products. On the other hand it was prohibited to incorporate imported TB-free cattle into TB affected farms and ranches.

1.5 Social consequences                                                                                

a) The farmers and workers in TB cattle affected farms and ranches due to lower trade income were getting low benefit and salaries having negative impact on living standard of their families and on local development.

b) Bovine TB seriously complicated the concentration of cattle into major herds when often  the animals originated from TB-free herds were mixed with animals from TB affected herds. This was sometimes causing conflicts and discrepancies among farmers, local authorities and veterinary service.

2. The pre-eradication (preparatory) phase

2.1 Search for suitable methodology

During 1956-1958 a lot of time was spent to discuss methodological and economic feasibility of  accelerated TB eradication in cattle population and to define suitable and uniform diagnostic system and methods. It must be considered actual epizootiological situation,  economic, public health, ecological and social conditions, preparedness of government veterinary service as far as staff number and training, facilities, material, funds,  diagnostic capacities as well as the support of farmers, agriculture organizations, public and government were concerned. Initially there was extremely difficult  to convince relevant organizations and even the majority of veterinarians  on the programme feasibility.

2.2 Research results considered sufficient

It was considered that the knowledge of bovine TB characteristics and diagnosis methods was sufficient for TB eradication in cattle population. Therefore, all experiments with anti-TB vaccination, TB serology and with other than neck tuberculin tests were stopped. This decision was made to initiate the eradication programme as soon as possible, without waiting for further results of national and international research, considering that later TB cattle situation would be even worse (including risk of introducing the disease in wildlife), i.e.  much more difficult and more expensive to manage eradication programme. Analogical approach was applied to bovine brucellosis eradication being organized simultaneously.

2.3 Decision on TB eradication in cattle and its goals

a) Initially, the veterinary community and decision-makers must be convinced about the correctness of the methodology to be adopted and about the economic and management feasibility of TB eradication in cattle population at national level within a relatively very short period of time.

b) In 1958 and 1959, based on complex analysis and recommendations presented by veterinary and public health services, the Government of the former Czechoslovakia adopted resolutions to eradicate bovine TB  and brucellosis.

c) The Government created a special government inter-ministerial commission, identified anti-TB subsidies, introduced obligatory pasteurisation of market milk and issued appropriate directives for cattle owners and administrative authorities.

 

 Czechoslovak government resolution No 781 of 16 September 1959 established special Government Commission for Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis Eradication. Dr Ladislav Polák, Director, Veterinary Department (Chief Veterinary Officer), Ministry of Agriculture was nominated as the Chairman, Dr Václav Kouba, Chief Epizootiologist as the Secretary; the members - high level and decision-competent representatives: Ing Karel Lamberk, Director, Department of Animal Production, Ministry of Agriculture, Dr Vilém Škovránek, Chief Hygienist and Vice-minister, Ministry of Health, Doc. Emil Mates, Director of Agriculture Department, Ministry of Finance, Director of Agriculture Department, State Planning Commission, Doc. Jaroslav Dražan, Head of Epizootiological Department, University of Veterinary Sciences , Brno and Prof. Karel Raška, Director, Institute of epidemiology and microbiology, State Health Institute, Prague.

d) The goal of the programme was to eradicate TB in cattle  by the end of 1968, i.e. to reach  zero prevalence, however without reducing national cattle population, milk and beef production and farmers’ income. For the first time, a fixed deadline was imposed upon a national animal health programme. This was different to the previous attempts of trying to fulfil long-term disease control programmes without fixed deadlines for achieving specific targets of reducing or eradicating a particular disease.

e) Due to the fact that many humans suffering by M. bovis were becoming its carriers for future decades, it was not real to require full eradication, i.e. zero incidence – complete disappearance of this pathogen from the country was  not yet realizable.

f) The goal was in compliance with later OIE Code conditions for declaring a territory free of TB in cattle population. *)

*)  International Animal Health Code 2001, chapter 2.3.3: “To qualify as officially free from bovine tuberculosis, a country shall  satisfy following requirements: 2) 99.8 % of the herds have been officially free from bovine tuberculosis at least the past 3 years as disclosed by periodic testing of all cattle to determine the absence of bovine tuberculosis….”

2.4 Starting with first country-wide survey

a) The first country-wide survey in 1959 covered 88.05 % of the cattle population, including all females of reproductive age. The number of tuberculin tests reached 3,512,398, i.e. the ratio tests/population = 1.16.  (Tab. 2)

b) The number of newly discovered TB cattle reached 357,903 animals, i.e. annual incidence rate = 0.1214. The prevalence on 31 December 1959 reached 628,276 TB cattle, i.e. prevalence rate = 0.2103 (21.03%). (Tab. 3). TB cow prevalence value was represented by 461,345 TB cows, i.e. 32.26 %. (Tab. 10). In the average every third cow was affected by TB ! In Central Bohemia and West Bohemia provinces every second cow was affected by TB and in North Bohemia province even three cows from four were TB affected. (Tab. 1

c) Category structure of TB cattle population of 859,557 in  the whole Czechoslovakia in 1959 was as follows: dairy cows – 617,627 (71.85 %), heifers – 129,998 (15.12 %), calves – 32,823 (3.82 %) and others – 79,109 (9.20 %). (Tab. 13,14).

d) The macroscopic findings of TB in slaughterhouses was confirming similar proportions. In 1959 in Czechoslovakia the macroscopic TB postmortem findings were reported in 150,429 cattle heads (88,494 cows, 21,096 heifers, 3,058 calves and 37,781 others) slaughtered in the abattoirs (Tab. 15). There were confiscated due to TB findings: 131,777 lungs, 43,484 livers, 46,601 intestines, 1,969 uterus, 5,105 udders and 10,887 total bodies (generalized TB).  (Tab. 16).

e) The following data concern the tuberculosis in Slovak Republic (figures in brackets refer to the whole of Czechoslovakia): In 1959 was carried out 1,460,246  (4,972,644) tuberculin tests, i.e. ratio tests/total number of cattle = 1.11 (1.16). Number of investigated cattle reached  1,109,650 (3,739,355) animals, i.e. 84.31 % (86.91 %) of the total population. The incidence reached 164,687 (522,590) TB cattle, i.e. incidence rate = 0.1272 (0.1231) and  prevalence on 31 December 1959 was 231,281 (859,557) TB cattle, i.e. prevalence rate = 17.57 % (19.98 %).  (Tab. 12). Cow TB prevalence on 31 December 1959 was 156,282 (617,627), i.e. prevalence rate = 24.34 % (29.81 %).

f) In Czechoslovakia in 1960 was TB recorded in 22.68 % cattle and 32.94 cows; 86 % of cooperatives ranches and 85.4 % state ranches were affected by TB cattle; TB in cows reached in cooperative ranches 36.53 % and in state ranches 66 %. Cattle productivity in TB affected herds was estimated to be by 10-25 % lower than in TB-free herds.

g) All regions and all state ranches as well as 86 % of  cooperatives ranches were bovine TB affected. TB cattle territorial distribution was very different in individual regions and provinces (Tables 7 and 33). TB cattle prevalence in 3 regions was even higher than 60 %. (Tab. 1).

h) Hundreds of newly reported human cases of M. bovis infection stressed the need for intensive control programme.

i) Such alarming findings led to the initiation of an accelerated eradication programme covering the entire territory of former Czechoslovakia. Due to this catastrophic situation becoming worse every day, it was decided to start without any delay a country-wide recovery programme.

j) Eradication of TB in cattle population was declared as the most important task for country veterinary service for the next decade to come.

3. Materials and methods

3.1 Data sources

As the data sources for this article served official statistics of Czechoslovak and Czech State Veterinary Service, official documents of agriculture and health ministries, literature publications and personal experience of the author (as national Chief Epizootiologist responsible from professional point of view for  preparation,  management and results of the TB eradication programme). For the calculation of epizootiological indicators author’s EPIZOO software, version 4.0a, was used.

3.2  Strategy and methodology

a) The strategy and methodology to be applied in the whole country were agreed, after intensive experiments and discussions at all levels, by animal health and public health authorities and specialists as well as by research and education institutions.

b) The accelerated eradication methodology was based upon experience of field veterinary service and the results of comparative studies carried out in selected regions and ranches by national specialists. The TB cattle eradication philosophy and procedure were based upon exploitation of the current, eventually accelerated, replacement (‘turnover’)  of the older by a new generation of national cattle population (replacement cycle of a decade duration). Premature culling was performed primarily among TB cattle to avoid risk for intrafocal tuberculin negative “healthy” cattle. This approach also supported gradual development of a new generation of calves born from tuberculosis-free parents. However, initially not having enough TB-free cows it was necessary to use for further breeding also TB cow calves under the condition of their strict isolation and feeding with healthy cows milk, eventually with sterilized milk of TB mother-cow after few days feeding with raw mother colostrum. In many cases repeated tuberculin testing helped to solve the problem. However, later the risky breeding of calves of TB cows was stopped and only calves of TB-free cows were used. Creating new generation of TB-free cattle was facilitated by introduction of selected, healthy and genetically suitable animals to replace TB-affected cattle and repopulate  highly affected farms after their depopulation and sanitation.

c) The basic method consisting in repeated application of “test and slaughter”, removing immediately tuberculin positive and clinically diseased TB cattle to the slaughterhouses, was used in herds with low TB occurrence. The heavily affected TB farms or ranches (e.g. with more than 50 % tuberculin positive cattle) were, according the eradication plan, depopulated and replaced by healthy animals or some were temporarily converted into so called “TB isolators”. These served for final exploitation of selected high yielding milking and pregnant cows  before sending them for their slaughter. The TB isolators were in the final phase depopulated and after thorough cleansing and disinfection repopulated by healthy cattle to  start normal breeding and production. TB isolators helped  to expand  more rapidly tuberculosis-free territory to cover gradually the entire country. In the final stage the major isolators were established in the region Melnik in Central Bohemia. Last TB isolators were depopulated by the end of 1968. The principle of establishing TB isolators was applied at all levels – within affected ranches, districts (regions), provinces and the whole country when and where it was indicated as a useful and real measure.

d) The decisive factor was systematic survey of cattle population using all available diagnostic methods – intravital, post-mortem and laboratory – to discover and monitor  a l l  affected herds in the country. It was decided to test the whole cattle population in average at least once a year and females of reproductive age twice a year considering also local epizootiological situation.

 

3.3 Conditions for declaring TB free status

 

In TB ranches there were carried out  repeated tuberculin tests until all infected cattle were removed. The conditions for declaring a ranch or farm as TB free were as follows: after the removal of the last TB cattle started so called “observation period” of 120 days when two tuberculin tests with negative results were  carried out (first  one month after starting “observation period” and  the second after following 3 months) and after a thorough  cleansing and disinfection. Entrances of TB-free ranches were identified with signboards declaring this status.

 

3.4 TB eradication tactics

a) Due to the fact that every case was different, there were applied different approaches in individual situations within the framework of official methodology respecting eradication deadlines. The flexibility was very important for the best possible solution in the given cases.

 

b) Initially a more intensive programme was dedicated to the provinces, regions, districts and ranches of low TB cattle prevalence where it was easier to obtain local replacement for tuberculin reactors sent for slaughter. Later these provinces, regions, districts and ranches served as the source of TB-free cattle for the replacement of TB cattle in highly affected provinces, regions, districts and ranches. The success of the programme, its impact evaluation, correct certification of tuberculosis-free herds and discovery of new outbreaks depended also on the results of meat inspection carried out by government veterinary food hygienists having important role within national epizootiological surveillance system.

3.5 Intravital diagnostic method

a) For intravital discovery of TB cattle  was used delayed hypersensitivity test, i.e. tuberculin test consisting in intradermal injection of bovine tuberculin and the subsequent detection of swelling at the site of injection 3 days later. Considering that the neck skin is more sensitive to the tuberculin than the caudal fold skin, it was decided to use tuberculin test  performed only on the mid-neck, in spite of requiring more demanding work in comparison with caudal fold tuberculin test as far as physical strenuousness, difficulty with animal fixing and time consuming were concerned. This more sensitive form of tuberculin testing proved to be sufficient to discover all TB cattle herds as priority condition for the eradication (inclusive avoiding M. bovis penetration in wildlife).

 

b) For the TB eradication programme “Koch vetus tuberculin” was replaced by purified protein derivate (PPD) tuberculin with potency guaranteed  per bovine dose of at least 2.000 IU (International Units). The volume of each injection dose  was 0.2 ml. The injection sites were clipped and cleansed. A fold of skin within each clipped area was measured with callipers. A short needle was inserted obliquely into the deeper layers of the skin. The skin-fold thickness of each injection site was remeasured 72 hours after injection. The interpretation was based on clinical observation and  recorded increase of skin-fold thickness. The reaction was considered: to be negative with an increase of no more than 2.5 mm in TB free herds and no more than 1.5 mm in TB herds; to be positive with increase of 3.6 mm and more in skin-fold thickness; other results were considered as inconclusive (dubious).

 

c) Mammalian tuberculin alone was used in the eradication programme, reserving the comparative test (with simultaneous application of mammal and avian tuberculins) for problem herds when paraspecific sensitization was suspected. The comparative intradermal tuberculin test was used to differentiate between animals infected with M. bovis and those sensitised to tuberculin due to exposure to other mycobacteria.

 

3.6 Legislation

 

a) Very important was the preparation and issuing legal and regulation documents supporting anti-TB programme defining the rights and duties of all animal owners, services and government administration at all levels. The previous not-enough-effective concept of voluntary implementation of bovine TB preventive and eradication measures was converted into an obligatory programme. The previous non-uniform measures not being organized in all the country were replaced by organized uniform and centrally integrated programme.

 

b) The programme of TB eradication in cattle was supported by a new “Veterinary Care Law” adopted by Czechoslovak parliament (law No. 154 dated 26 June 1961) identifying the rights and duties of all inhabitants as far as animal health was concerned. This law promoted government veterinary service giving it necessary legal power for anti-epizootic measures, more demanding and effective than before.

 

c) Simultaneously there were issued particular ordinances of the country government following by ministerial decrees issued by the Minister of Agriculture identifying the duties of the farmers, livestock  enterprises and local government administration offices to participate actively in TB cattle eradication programmes. As follow-up it was decided about special government subsidies to cover cooperatives and private farmers’ losses due to anti-TB measures (mainly to pay the difference between slaughter price of normally culled TB-free cattle  and prematurely culled TB cattle ). In the final phase (in 1967) the subsidies were given under similar conditions also to state sector – agriculture state ranches and centrally managed organizations.

 

Examples: In 1967 the anti-tb subsidies sums were given: to Agriculture Cooperatives – 95  million Kčs, State ranches – 79 million Kčs and to other sector – 17 million. (That time the private sector was already tb-free).

 

 

d) Within the framework of the above mentioned legal documents a series of special anti-TB regulations and instructions was issued by the Director, Veterinary Department of the Ministry of Agriculture containing the duties of government veterinary service in: field practice, slaughterhouses, diagnostic laboratories,  production of veterinary biologicals, rendering and sanitation, postgraduate education, service management and administration. There were issued different national diagnostic standards for allergic testing, laboratory diagnosis, slaughterhouse inspection, etc. A national register of all TB diseased cattle herds was established for monitoring specific epizootiological situation.

 

e) Simultaneously the Minister of Health issued special regulations for human health protection of the workers in farms and ranches with TB cattle as well for the protection of the consumers. National Chief Hygienist issued instruction for human medical service, in particular for epidemiological network, including diagnostic laboratories.

 

f) Among the most important anti-TB steps there was the decision on obligatory pasteurization of all milk destined for public consumption. It was required as minimal milk temperature to be of 85 Co  during a moment (instant pasteurization) or 71-74 Co  during 20-30 seconds (prolonged pasteurization). The relevant proposal of the Government Commission for the Eradication of the Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis was converted into legal duty by the Government Decision No. 1059 dated 13 December 1961.

 

From 1 January 1969 all milk in public distribution must be only from tb-free cow-herds ( Decision of the Minister of Agriculture No. 01-1108/1967 published in advance in the  Ministerial Bulletin No. 26 dated on 1 September 1967).

 

g) It was started issuing obligatory norms for  new livestock facility constructions containing animal hygiene parameters to protect animal health (optimal physiological parameters) and to avoid eventual disease spread between the buildings (minimal isolation distances).

 

h) List of all official documents related to the TB eradication programme see at the end in the References.

 

3.7 Surveillance – monitoring

 

a) There was established a complex intensive surveillance and monitoring system at all levels of anti-TB management. It included field veterinarians having daily contact with the cattle population, slaughterhouse veterinarians inspecting daily all slaughtered cattle, diagnostic laboratories investigating microscopically and bacteriologically all sent samples suspected to be infected or contaminated by M. bovis.

 

b) Simultaneously it was established a complex anti-TB surveillance and monitoring system at all levels of human medical service supported by well equipped diagnostic laboratories.

 

c) The eradication programme depended firstly on the reliability of available diagnostic method and on the uniformity of its result interpretation in the whole country. The programme was made possible thanks to the ability of mass testing to detect  a l l  TB cattle herds in the country and to identify with good reliability all animals infected by TB. In other words, the first precondition was a very good knowledge of specific bovine TB epizootiological situation and its effective continuous monitoring and surveillance.

d) To discover and isolate all foci, total populations of cows and heifers were tested in average twice every year. Additionally, animals were tested before moving into newly established large-scale livestock units, before the sale for breeding, in the quarantine, in the herds and areas under risk identified by thorough epizootiological investigation. Positive animals were visibly marked with a triangular hole (sides of 2 cm) in the left auricle (the right auricle was used for similar marking of brucellosis cattle) and not more subjected to repeated testing to avoid problems with potential false negative results (repeated tests can have different results creating doubts about the correctness of the first positive result = creating undesirable doubts even about feasibility of the programme goals).

e) Particular attention was paid to clinical and post-mortem suspect cases, newly discovered outbreaks, contact animals and new cases in man. Immediate action was taken to trace the disease source and route of spread using complex diagnostic methods and thorough epizootiological analysis. Every case was different requiring different approaches. The national reference centre for bovine tuberculosis was referred to for a final opinion in dubious cases unable to be solved locally.

f) Important role had veterinary diagnostic laboratories to investigating samples such as milk, meat, lymph glands, viscera, sputa, faeces,  etc. suspected to be infected or contaminated by M. bovis. Extraordinary importance had laboratory investigation in suspect cases and confirming new outbreaks as well as in deciding differential diagnosis.

 

g) The results of positive findings were reported through vertical management channels up to central veterinary and human medicine administration for evaluation and response at corresponding management levels. Mutual coordination and information between both services, in particular between epizootiological and epidemiological networks, were exemplary.

h) The extraordinary intensity of bovine TB surveillance and monitoring, based upon allergic testing, document following data (Tab. 23):

 

   pre-eradication phase 1955-1959: 10,285,013 tests,  i.e. ratio tests/population was 0.71

   eradication (attack) phase 1960-1968: 46,792,088 tests, i.e. ration tests/population was 1.74

   initial post-eradication phase 1969-1979: 62,083,747 tests, i.e. ratio tests/population was 1.78

   follow-up periods:

                             1980-1989: 46,567,384 tests, i.e. ratio tests/population was 1.33

                             1990-2000: 18,060,839 tests, i.e. ratio tests/population was 0.78.

i) Altogether, between 1955 and 2000, 183,789,071 tests were carried out, i.e. tests/population ratio was  1.37. A maximal annual test/population ratio of 2.20 was reached in 1967 during the most intensive eradication measures.

j) Anti-M.bovis monitoring and surveillance in cattle population was carried out also in human population and among other susceptible animal species, such as sheep, goat, pigs, etc. to detect in time eventual sources threatening bovine TB elimination campaign. Bovine TB positive domestic animals after being discovered were immediately sent for slaughter.

 

3.8 Information system

 

a) Existing epizootiological information system was revised and transformed into an instrument targeting at anti-TB programme support. Clear cut objectives facilitated to formulate information strategy based on specifically oriented collection, collation and dissemination of data important for TB situation analyses,  evaluation of the programme  development and detection of eventual problems to be solved.

 

b) There were tested, prepared, printed and distributed special data collecting forms such as for tuberculin testing, for monthly reporting on epizootiological situation (including bovine TB) and on veterinary service activities (including anti-TB planned and ad hoc actions). Particular forms were issued for semi-annual detailed reporting on cattle TB situation and anti-TB programme development,  for monitoring the use of government anti-TB subsidies, etc.

 

c) The integrated information system included data of all components of veterinary services organization, i.e. not only data from field, district, regional and provincial veterinarians but also data from slaughterhouses and diagnostic laboratories. All were processed, evaluated and analyse to be used for decision-making on further anti-TB programme measures considering also other influencing factors. Summary data were published in veterinary statistical yearbook and distributed for information to selected units of veterinary service organization, institutions and organizations involved in the campaign.

 

d) Every year a yearbook called “Surveillance of anthropozoonoses” was issued and widely distributed. This publication contained the summary (with professional comments) of all findings on the major zoonoses (including M. bovis) from all components of both surveillance and monitoring systems carried out by veterinary and human medicine services.

 

3.10 Education and training

 

a) The curriculum of veterinary faculties in Brno and Košice were reformed to prepare new veterinarians for new livestock husbandry conditions and animal health tasks, mainly in large-scale animal production units. There were introduced new curriculum subjects, with sufficient hours for the theory and field practical exercises, such as epizootiology, animal hygiene (today  called also ‘animal welfare’), etc. In the syllabi of several curriculum subjects were strengthened the lessons dealing with cattle population health protection and disease eradication methods. Priority was given to the most actual problems such as bovine tuberculosis, bovine brucellosis and foot-and-mouth disease. A special Department of Epizootiology and Infectious Disease Clinic was established in 1952 (independent Department of Epizootiology  has continued up today) under the leadership of Prof. MVDr Antonín Klobouk.

 

b) To compensate the gap, caused by closed universities during the war 1939-1945, it was increased the number of new students of veterinary medicine in existing veterinary faculty in Brno (e.g. maximum number of students was reached in 1948/49 academic year – 1,235). In 1952 was founded a new veterinary faculty in Košice, Slovak Republic. This facilitated to cover gradually by professional veterinary staff all country territory including after war repopulated country borders territories. Without necessary number of qualified staff adequately distributed it would be impossible to start and implement so demanding programmes such as bovine TB  and  brucellosis eradication in the whole country.  National Chief Veterinary Officer was before almost in a position as a general without solders.

 

b) An Institute for Postgraduate Veterinary Education was established within the framework of State Veterinary Service. Practically all veterinarians passed special courses on bovine TB and brucellosis eradication with the aim the trainees to be able to carry out correctly and uniformly all instructions and tasks related to the campaign against bovine TB and brucellosis. E.g., two weeks courses for field veterinarians were concluded by the examinations, including practical performance and interpretation of  tuberculin tests. Similar training supporting anti-TB programme was organized also for veterinarians working in slaughterhouses and diagnostic laboratories.

 

c) Every year in January there were organized 3-weeks courses for all provincial and regional epizootiologists to be informed about critical analysis of previous year results, acquainted in details with new instructions, annual plan tasks, their assurance, inputs’ availability and problems expected in the coming year and ways of their solution. The courses also offered the chance for open discussion with the programme leaders, for experience exchange and for eventual critics of some central institutions steps.

 

d) The training courses proved to be a key factor to unify anti-TB measures in the whole country avoiding misinterpretation, conflicts between veterinarians and cattle owner and doubts about the programme and its performance. The course teachers were national leaders of the campaign and  selected specialists, the best of the country, having practical field experience.

 

3.11 Trade adjustment

a) Complex and demanding eradication procedures required not only extraordinary professional, organisational, economic and social measures, but also a temporary adjustment of national trade policy. Particular trade regulations during TB cattle eradication programme consisted in allocating a temporary meat and milk purchase quota to the national agency in charge of purchasing agriculture products.

b) Provinces and regions with TB-free status or with very low TB prevalence reduced during national anti-TB programme the slaughter of cattle and thus highly affected provinces, regions and ranches were given a chance to increase slaughter as required by the accelerated eradication programme. The national demand for meat was met in this manner without any cut-off in meat supply of inhabitants.

c) On the other hand, TB-free provinces and regions or with very low TB prevalence delivered healthy cattle, mainly pregnant heifers, to depopulated ranches/farms to recommence breeding and production as well as to other ranches/farms after prematurely culling all TB cattle and necessary follow-up sanitation.

d) The quota for milk trade was set in the opposite manner, i.e. lower in highly affected provinces and regions because of the reduction in number of milking cows due to premature accelerated slaughter. On the other hand, in TB-free provinces and regions the quota was increased to maintain national milk trade level.

e) The planned replacement of tuberculosis cattle involved organised transfer of healthy cattle from TB-free ranches, regions and provinces in Czechoslovakia  (Tab. 21).

3.12 Planning

a) Relatively good knowledge of starting situation facilitated the planning of the programme targets for partial annual results to be achieved TB cattle eradication, i.e. reaching zero prevalence by the fixed deadline - end of  1968.

For this purpose there were used and combined different methods:

aa) planning of TB cattle number reduction at the end of individual years using prognosis direct  line combined with prognosis curve line;

ab) planning of TB-free cattle number increase at the end of individual years using prognosis direct  line combined with prognosis curve line.

ac) The course of the TB cattle eradication followed more or less the line as was initially planned. The practice proved that the plan of TB cattle reduction in the form of sinusoid curve was more realistic in comparison with the form of direct line (Tab. 8).

b) Resulting national plan data were scheduled for individual provinces in agreement with them (provincial veterinary service, provincial administrative authorities and farmers’ representation) after considering all relevant factors (staff, funds, material, facilities, logistic, assistance, etc.). Similar approach was carried out at regional level and livestock enterprise levels in order to assure vertical and horizontal inter-linkage of all the programme management. At the level of ranches affected by bovine TB the programme targets and activities were included in their production and economic plans as an integrated component. Every ranch knew its tasks and eradication deadline to respect. Individual plans, respecting national instructions and local conditions, contained final date for local TB cattle eradication and a list of individual anti-tuberculosis activities with deadlines and personal responsibilities.

c) All anti-TB plans were evaluated at least annually and when necessary they were flexibly adapted to the new situation in order to achieve the final target more effectively.

4. The eradication (attack) phase

4.1 Implementation of the programme

During the eradication phase there were applied all prepared above mentioned methods in full intensity and dimension targeting at the final goal. Attention was given to all relevant factors i.e. epizootiological situation development (TB cattle prevalence, incidence, extinction and other indicators) and eradication process influencing elements. Detailed combination of the indicators reflecting the final goal criterion, i.e. TB cattle prevalence as the result of incidence and extinction  see in Tab. 9.

4.2 Cattle population testing

a) Number of tuberculin tests was adapted to the needs of the programme and actual epizootiological situation: starting in 1959 with 3,512,398 tests, reaching maximum in 1967 with 6,109,595 tests and  finishing in 1968 with 5,825,501. Total number during 1959-1968 was 50,304,486 tests. Ratios TB cattle/population started with 1.16 in 1959, culminated in1967 with 2.20 and finishing with 2.17 in 1968. This intensive testing provided very good information on epizootiological situation, controlling anti-TB measures and fulfilment of the eradication programme.  (Tab. 2)

b) Number of investigated cattle was increasing from 2,629,705 heads (88.05 % of cattle population) in 1959 up to 2,855,558 (96.93 %) in 1968 reaching maximum 97.35 % in 1965. (Tab. 2). Number of investigated cows was increasing from 91.35 % in 1959 reaching maximum 99.96 % in 1965. (Tab. 10).

c) During this phase there were discovered many new TB cases. Maximum positive results were in 1959 – 357,903 while in 1968 were registered only 5,243 positive cases in spite of very intensive tuberculin testing. The number of positive cases was reduced 68 times. Cumulative number of new positive cases during 1959 – 1968 reached 932,747.  (Tab. 9).                    

d) The number of positively tested cases started with maximum at the beginning of the eradication programme as the consequences of previous insufficient anti-TB measures and incomplete cattle population coverage by tuberculin testing (e.g. in 1957 – 53 %, 1958 – 72.01 %). The number of positive tests was gradually decreased thanks to the impact of intensive anti-TB measures.

4.3 Incidence

Bovine TB incidence rate (new cases/population) was decreasing from 0.1214 (357,903 new cases) in 1959 to 0.0018 (5,243 new cases) in 1968. This indicator was reflecting decreasing gaps in protective measures. These measures being gradually more effective conduced to limit the number of new TB cattle cases. (Tab. 9)

4.4 Extinction

Bovine TB extinction as the opposite indicator to incidence reflected the intensity of TB cattle eradication, i.e. fulfilling the programme. In 1959 was eliminated 226,633 TB cattle and in the last year of the programme all remaining 24,720 TB cattle to reach zero prevalence at the end of 1968. During this period were eliminated all previous TB cattle (497,006 at the end of 1958) and all newly detected TB cattle (932,747), i.e. altogether 1,429,753 TB cattle. Values of relative indicator TB cattle  extinction rate decreased from  0.0768 in 1959 up to 0.0083 in 1968. (Tab. 3). Eliminated TB cattle were sent to slaughterhouses, eventually to rendering plant in case of clinical form of the tuberculosis. (Tab. 16 and 19).

4.5 Prevalence 

a) Bovine TB point prevalence (at the end of year) in 1959 reaching 628,276 TB cattle heads was reduced by the end of 1968 to zero.  Bovine TB prevalence rate started with 21,03 % in 1959 to be reduced to zero in 1968. (Tab. 9). Prevalence of TB cows reaching in 1959 catastrophic values of 461,345 TB cows, i.e. prevalence rate of 32.26 % was also reduced to zero by the end of 1968. (Tab. 10).

b) Estimated linear trend (least square line) of bovine TB prevalence values was expressed in following formula of chronological time series:  Y = 313813.59 – 80955.39  X (Tab. 11).  The trend value for the whole Czechoslovakia was:  Y = 432761.69 – 113799.77  X. 

4.6 Slaughterhouse TB findings

The macroscopic findings of TB in Czechoslovak slaughterhouses were reported during eradication phase in 1,684,227 heads of cattle (991,656 cows – 58.88 %, 239,700 heifers – 14.23 %, 30,710 calves – 1.82 % and 422,161 others – 25.07 %). (Tab. 15). During the same period there were confiscated due to TB findings: 1,572,888 lungs, 369,237 livers, 418,177 intestines, 22,986 uterus, 63,354 udders and 358,911 total bodies (generalized TB).  (Tab. 16).

4.7 Replacement of TB cattle

TB cattle were replaced first of all by the local TB-free cattle, mainly by pregnant heifers and high yielding cows. There was interest to exploit eradication programme for improving genetically dairy cattle herds to be more productive. However, in the most affected herds and farms destined for the depopulation, it was necessary to introduce TB-free cattle from other ranches, regions and provinces. During eradication phase there were transferred for this purpose in organized form in Czechoslovakia altogether 1,215,187 TB-free cattle. (Tab. 21).

4.8 Epizootiological characteristics of bovine TB situation

a) During TB cattle eradication phase all collected data were processed and used for continuous monitoring and analyses of different epizootiological indicators characterizing specific dynamic process in time and space.

b) The TB situation was characterized not only by the simple classical epizootiological indicators of disease morbidity (incidence and point prevalence) mentioned above  but also by many other ones having different importance in different time and places.

c) Cattle population epizootiological structure was reflected in the number of different epizootiological characteristics such as: total TB-free, TB-free non-exposed, TB-free exposed indirectly, TB-free exposed directly, TB indeterminate cattle, total TB cattle, TB cattle without specific clinical symptoms and TB cattle with clinical symptoms. Every epizootiological category required different approach and measures considering always the stage of TB development, local conditions and influencing factors. (Tab. 17).

d)  The TB cattle eradication programme was influenced also by territorial structure of TB cattle distribution which was very irregular at local, district, region, province as well as national country level. Epizootiological maps on TB cattle herds location represented very important tools for programme strategy and tactics, for different grade of attention and support to different territories. It was necessary to expand bovine TB-free territories gradually to reach finally all country cattle population to be free of this zoonosis.

e) The TB cattle eradication programme was influenced also by sector structure of affected farms and ranches. Every sector – private, cooperative and state represented, in spite of similar bovine TB epizootiological situation, different management and economic conditions what must be always considered when  applying anti-TB measures. State ranches were not of need to be included in government special anti-TB subsidies policy (necessary funds for anti-TB programme were included in their production/economic plans) while the other sectors  needed government financial help.  (Tab.  22).

f) For the evaluation of the TB cattle situation it was necessary sometimes to use other than classical indicators such as ratios of TB cattle to cattle of other  epizootiological characteristics: ratio of diseased/healthy animals, ratio of healthy/diseased animals, ratio of diseased/intrafocal animals, ratio of intrafocal/diseased animals, ratio of diseased/at risk animals, ratio of at risk/diseased animals, ratio of diseased/investigated animals and ratio of investigated/diseased animals. (Tab. 4).

g)  Often it was useful to evaluate indicators related to TB cattle new cases such as: Ratio of new cases per one space unit, ratio of territory per one new case, ratio new cases per one time unit, ratio of time period per one new case, ratio of new cases per one diseased animal, ratio of diseased animals per one new case, etc.  (Tab. 5, 6).

h) There were monitored individual sectors’ TB situation as one of the criteria for eradication process evaluation. Among the important aspects belonged  the tendencies of decreasing number of ranches with TB cattle, ranches although without TB cattle but yet in “observation period” and increasing number of officially recognized TB cattle free ranches. (Tab. 27, 28).

4.9 Clinical, postmortem  and laboratory investigations

a) Particular attention was given to cattle with advanced and clinically recognizable form (“open tuberculosis”) representing the most dangerous source for animals and humans at specific TB risk. The ratio open-TB cases/TB cow prevalence was in Czechoslovakia e.g. during 1960-1966 about 6 %. (Tab. 19).

b) Comparative study of postmortem macroscopic TB findings at slaughterhouses among cows marked as tuberculin positive showed the coincidence in 84.16 %.  On the other hand, in 21.24 % cows marked as tuberculin positive was not found any postmortem macroscopic TB changes. (Tab. 18).

c) Allergic, postmortem and epizootiological investigations were in suspect cases complemented by laboratory investigation of different samples such as milk, sputum, organs’ tissues, etc.. (Tab. 20).

5. Programme management

5.1 Inter-sector commissions for bovine TB eradication programme

a) Czechoslovak government resolution No 781 of 16 September 1959 established special Government Commission for Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis Eradication. Director, Veterinary Department, Ministry of Agriculture was nominated as the Chairman, Chief Epizootiologist as the Secretary and high level and decision-competent representatives of Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Health (Chief Hygienist at Vice-minister level), Ministry of Finance and State Planning Commission, University of Veterinary Sciences, National Epidemiological Institute as the members. The main purpose of this Commission was to monitor anti-TB and anti-brucellosis programmes, to coordinate related inter-sector activities, to apply decisions being out of veterinary service competence, power and resources, to advise government on the implementation of these programmes.

b) There were established similar high level inter-sector commissions in all provinces and regions where as the Chairmen were Deputy Presidents of the local governments and as the Secretaries were nominated provincial and regional Chief Veterinary Officers. These commissions were composed of the highest decision-competent empowered representatives of  sectors and institutions involved in the campaign. These commissions had analogical purpose as the central one.

c) The commissions played very important role due to the fact that the power and resources of State Veterinary Service couldn’t assure themselves many duties and measures required by the programme. Beside management, material and financial support the commissions had also indirect role consisting in psychological support of the campaign and of veterinary services providing them encouragement to fulfill extraordinary demanding and long-term professional and management duties.

5.2 Veterinary service organization structure

a) In 1951 all field, slaughterhouse and diagnostics laboratory veterinary services were unified into government organization structure as government public service responsible for animal health in the country, i.e. for animal population health protection, treatment of diseased animals and control of mass diseases including those transmissible to man.

b) Simultaneously the structure of veterinary service was changed from originally horizontal management into vertical one, i.e. centrally organized and supervised by Veterinary Department of the Ministry of Agriculture. The direct vertical management of the service was implemented through Provincial and Regional Veterinary Directorates without any intermediary bodies. This organizational arrangement facilitated relatively easy communication and logistic between different strata of anti-epizootic programmes management. The same principle of vertical management was applied also for budgetary policy of the unified, centralized and relatively independent State Veterinary Service.

c) The solutions of provincial and regional anti-TB problems, i.e. at horizontal levels, were facilitated thanks to above mentioned inter-sector commissions.

d) Centrally organized and vertically managed veterinary organization proved to be extraordinary important arrangement facilitating uniform and well coordinated  approach to and implementation of anti-TB programme.

5.3 Veterinary service staff – professional and supporting (specialization)

a) All veterinarians and veterinary institutions at all managerial levels were involved in the anti-TB campaign having clearly identified their role and responsibility following the particular plans. The eradication of cattle TB was declared as the number-one-task of all veterinary service having the priority before any other problems.

b) In 1958 was established a network of provincial and regional epizootiologists within provincial and regional veterinary service directorates. All epizootiologists were subordinated methodologically to National Chief Epizootiologist (author of this paper) who was professionally responsible for the country anti-epizootic programmes and their results. This resulted in an uniform professional approach, programme preparation, management, co-ordination, supervision and evaluation. In some provinces with very high TB morbidity there was temporarily established so called veterinary phthiseologist dedicating his activity only to anti-TB programme. Epizootiologist duties were also to help local veterinary service, mainly in final epizootiological diagnosis identifying affected and non affected cattle and herds (e.g. difficulty with detecting TB-anergents with generalized TB form, to distinguish paraspecific tuberculin reaction due to M. avium or other mycobacteria) and in the selection of the best procedure of TB eradication. The epizootiologists’ network has been used up today for other anti-epizootic programmes exploiting the experience gained during anti-TB campaign.

c) At central and all provincial diagnostic laboratories were established  well equipped and staffed units for TB diagnosis.

d) For difficult-to-solved field and diagnosis problems a reference laboratory was made available (Brno Veterinary Research Institute, Laboratory for mycobacteria – headed by M. Pavlas) to help on the spot where provincial or regional services were not able to clarify epizootiological situation (e.g. differentiate cases caused by M. bovis and by other mycobacteria – unspecific reactions of tuberculin test).

5.3 Veterinary facilities

a) Director, Veterinary Department, Ministry of Agriculture administered also several, mostly newly established and gradually developed, institutions and facilities supporting also anti-epizootic activities including anti-TB programme:

aa) central and provincial veterinary diagnostic laboratories (in average 1-3 in a province) relatively well staffed and equipped able to diagnose also bovine TB histologically and bacteriologically;

bb) factory for veterinary biologics production (Bioveta Ivanovice), including also PPD tuberculin to meet all requirements in terms of quality and quantity;

cc)  Institute for State Control of Veterinary Biologics (in Brno) controlling also produced PPD tuberculin to confirm tuberculin standard quality before its distribution;

dd)  Veterinary Sanitation Institute (HQs in Prague), with a network of  rendering plants and fleets of special camions, was made responsible for collecting and processing dead and confiscated sanitary slaughtered animals as well as non-consumable animal products; its role was also to carry out demanding intrafocal and post-focal disinfection (current and closing sanitation)  by specially trained staff provided with modern equipment;

ee) Institute for Postgraduate Veterinary Education (in Pardubice) to organize postgraduate training courses for all categories of professional and supporting staff according to veterinary service needs giving the priority to key national animal programmes.

ff) Institute for Veterinary Extension (in Pardubice) producing materials for public information and education to support animal health programmes and to publish copies of all relevant regulations, instructions and information to be available to all veterinarians and to all units of veterinary service organization.

b) Extraordinary important and demanding anti-epizootic programmes, such as campaign against bovine TB and brucellosis starting under very difficult conditions caused by foot-and-mouth disease epizootics, provided an opportunity to significantly strengthen government veterinary service thanks to unusual support by the government and public opinion. This chance was exploited to get necessary funds for veterinary service, its staff, investment policy, material provisions, transport, etc. In other words, it was established a strong centrally organized  and competent action oriented veterinary service having high social prestige. The support continued during two next decades thanks to good results of target-oriented veterinary service anti-epizootic activities (e.g. 14 communicable diseases of animals were eradicated).

5.4 Material supply

a) The anti-TB campaign required to assure necessary amount of PPD tuberculin and tuberculin test instruments such as calibrated syringes and callipers. Instruments for cattle fixation and sputum extractors were assured as well.

b) Veterinary service was gradually provided with necessary number of cars for field veterinarians and special transport means: for collection of samples for laboratories; for collection  of dead and confiscated slaughtered animals and confiscated animal products to  be transferred in rendering factories and for diagnostic mobile laboratories.

 c) Special mobile equipments for cleansing and disinfection in outbreak areas were made available as well. It was assured necessary amount of anti-TB disinfections preparations (mainly based on chlorine, e.g. 2-5 % chloramine).

d)  Veterinary service was provided by necessary protective  clothing and footwear.

e)  All above mentioned material was of Czechoslovak provenience.

5.5 Funds

a) The budget for government veterinary service was significantly strengthened and allocation of the funds was giving priorities to the activities and investments linked with anti-TB campaign.

b) The government allocated funds for subsidies to cover the losses of livestock producers due to anti-TB programme, i.e. to pay mainly the price difference between cattle normal value and slaughter value of prematurely culled TB cattle. (Tab. 22). The system was developed by starting pilot field testing in 1959 comparing different forms of financial support of agriculture cooperatives - decisive sector in anti-TB campaign.

c) All anti-TB actions carried out by public services were for animal owners and for participating non-governmental organizations free of charge being financed by the state.

d) All education at veterinary faculties as well as all postgraduate training courses in the Institute for Postgraduate Veterinary Education were fully financed by the government (through Ministry of Education and Veterinary Department of the Ministry of Agriculture).

e) The process was stimulated by financial motivation (premiums) and by different forms of competition supported also by National Insurance Agency. This Agency was helping veterinary service also in mobilizing private and cooperative farmers and using its insurance funds for covering a part of losses. (Tab. 34).

Important role supporting the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis eradication programmes played Vaclav Famfule, officer of the National Insurance Agency.

5.6 Extension – publications

a) For supporting anti-TB campaign there were used different forms of national and local mass information media  such as newspapers and radio.

b) There was produced enormous number of different extension material for public, farmers and consumers, e.g. informative brochures on TB of domestic animals (Klobouk, 1956 and Klobouk, Pavlas, 1957)

c) There were published different documents informing about bovine TB, control methods, importance for human health and national anti-TB campaign

d) There was published a compendium  (Editor: J. Dražan, 1962) containing all necessary scientific information on TB for veterinary specialists and  several brochures for farmers.

e) In 1962 there was produced three-piece colour film on bovine tuberculosis financed by National Insurance Agency.

5.7 Research

a) Initial steps of specific TB research was concentrated on the compilation of world literature to can exploit the results already available.

b) Specific research was dedicated to study of epizootiological characteristics of bovine TB, resistance of M. bovis under country particular conditions and TB intravital differential diagnosis - the difference between non-M.bovis and other agents provoking mammal tuberculin reactions.

 c) Special comparative study was carried out regarding the coincidence between the slaughtered cattle marked intravitally as TB positive (hole in auricle) and postmortem macroscopic finding of TB changes. (Tab. 18).

c) The main institutions dealing with bovine TB research were: Universities of Veterinary Sciences in Brno and Košice and Veterinary Medicine Research Institute located in Brno.

5.8 Collaboration with epidemiological service

a) The campaign against bovine TB represented an integral component of national programme against tuberculosis in man.

b) Very close cooperation between veterinary and human medicine at all managerial and laboratory diagnostic levels represented important factor in timely detecting new TB cases and tracing the M. bovis sources. The veterinary and public health services played a key role in undertaking intensive surveillance with adequate follow-up response.

c) Important role had a common National Commission for Anthropozoonoses headed alternately by Chief Epidemiologist and Chief Epizootiologist and composed of top level specialists of both services for anti-zoonoses programmes (including anti-TB) coordination.

d)  The network of epizootiologists was linked with a similar network of epidemiologists in the public health service. Their collaboration in the field, in laboratories,  as well as at managerial level was excellent.

6. Results 

a) The main result of the preparatory phase was the identification of specific epizootiological situations and of influencing factors, the selection of an appropriate eradication methods and the creation of indispensable conditions while eradication phase represented practical implementation of the programme.

b) Zero prevalence in cattle was achieved by the end of 1968 (Tab. 9). Complete recovery of the cattle population was reached by removing and replacing all TB cattle. The eradication was achieved simultaneously in the Slovak Republic, i.e. the entire country of Czechoslovakia was free of bovine tuberculosis by 1968 (Tab. 12). Accelerated TB eradication in cattle avoided the penetration of M. bovis among wild animals.

c) During the preparatory and eradication (attack)  phases were detected  932,747 new tuberculin-positive bovines. All existing 1,429,753 TB diseased cattle (497,006 found at the beginning plus new ones) were slaughtered and replaced by healthy animals. (Tab. 3,11).

d) Reduction of TB cattle prevalence from 628,276 at the end of  1959   to   0  at the end of 1968, i.e.    reduction of TB prevalence rate from  21.03 at the end of 1959   to   0.00  at the end of 1968; (Tab. 9).

e) Reduction of TB cows prevalence from 461,345 at the end of 1959 to 0 at the end of 1968,  i.e. reduction of TB prevalence rate from 32.26 at the end of 1959   to   0.00  at the end of 1968 (Tab. 10). The number of  cows with advanced and clinically recognized tuberculosis in Czechoslovakia was reduced e.g. from 32,993 in 1960 to 11,672 in 1966. (Tab. 19).

f) Reduction of TB cattle incidence from  357,903 in 1959   to 5,243  in 1968, i.e. reduction of TB incidence rate from 0.1214 in 1959   to  0.0018  in 1968 (Tab. 9).

g) Reduction of  new positive test results from 357,903 to 5,243 in 1968, i.e. reduction of new positive tests percentage from 10.1897 % in 1959 to 0.0899 % in 1968;  increase of the ratio TB tests/positive results from 9.8138267 in 1959 to 1111.3127 in 1968 (Tab. 9).

h) The TB eradication in cattle in Czech Republic cost about US$ 149,000,000: US$ 69,000,000 – government anti-TB subsidies to livestock producers *), US$ 60,000,000 – veterinary and medical services, US$ 8,000,000 – local source expenses and US$ 12,000,000  other expenses. All expenses included, the replacement of one diseased bovine by a healthy animal cost in average US$ 123 (programme cost/number of all replaced diseased animals). To reduce TB cattle population by one head cost in average  US$ 237 (programme cost/reduced prevalence by one TB cattle head).

*) Government anti-TB subsidies to livestock producers during 1960-1968 in the whole Czechoslovakia reached US$ 105,200,000. In average direct government assistance to agriculture cooperatives during 1960-1966 reached US$ 242 per one TB cow replacement.

i) A simple annual benefit/cost ratio of > 1 was reached until in the third year of the programme. A cumulative benefit/cumulative cost ratio of > 1 was reached until in the fourth year of the programme. (Tab. 24). Before the programme cost was higher than the programme benefit. It was not easy to explain to those who expected the benefit to be higher than the cost  already from the beginning.

j) At the end of TB cattle eradication in 1968 the simple benefit (benefit - cost) reached US$ 903 million (US$ 1039 – US$ 112 million) and the indicator benefit/cost reached 9.2768 (1039/112) – 9.2768 : 1. (Tab. 24)

k) The same year the difference between cumulative benefit (US$ 4799 million) and  cumulative cost (US$ 1488 million), including all years of the eradication programme, reached  US$ 3311 million, i.e. ratio of cumulative benefit to cumulative cost was estimated to be  3.2251 – 3.2251 : 1.(Tab. 25).

 

The cumulative benefit was represented by the specific disease-free status being transferred to following cattle generations, thereby preventing repetition of previous losses. In other words the  b e n e f i t  of disease free status has continued (avoiding the initial losses) during next periods thanks to health 'reproduction' in following animal generations, i.e. to m u l t i p l y i n g   e f f e c t. After-eradication saved value =  loss at programme beginning multiplied by specific-disease-free time.

l) By the tenth year after the TB eradication (1978) in country cattle population the ratio of cumulative benefit/cumulative cost  reached the value of  9.2559 : 1 (US$ 15189 million / US$ 1641 million), taking into account the cost of post-eradication surveillance. The ratio of cumulative benefit to the discounted total cost reached theoretically 16 : 1. However, the discount method cannot be applied on the cumulative public health, biological, ecological and economic benefits which were increasing, i.e. multiplying (not decreasing), in time. (Tab. 25).

m) By the year 2000 the cumulative value saved from the programme beginning reached about US$ 3700 million thanks to avoiding initial losses.

n) Tuberculosis eradication in cattle helped to prevent new cases of M. bovis infection in the human population. During post-eradication period the infection was discovered  only in elder persons exposed in the past to this etiological agent – endogenous reactivation of persisting infection. (Tab. 26).

Example: In Respiratory Disease Sanatorium for Children in Sumperk in 1957 were treated 181 children and in 1967 only 32 children affected by M. bovis.

 Monetary criteria are not suitable for evaluating the benefit to human health.

o) Successful programme brought increased amount of produced meat and milk reflected in  increased income of the producers. In Czech Republic in 1969 annual production of bovine meat was higher by 253,000 MT, i.e. by 47.11 % (from 537,000 MT  to 790,000 MT) and annual production of milk was higher by 1006 million litres, i.e. by 56.33 %  (1,786,000,000 litres to 2,792,000,000  litres) in comparison with the production at the beginning of the eradication programme in 1959. Average annual milk yield per cow increased by 646 litres, i.e. by 35.83 % (from 1,803 litres to 2,449 litres). The average consumption per capita of beef increased from 18.5 kg  to 27.2 kg, i.e. by 47.03 % and of milk from 178 litres to 198.8 litres, i.e. by 11.69 %..

p) The export of cattle, milk and meat was facilitated bringing further profit to the country.

q) Analogical positive impacts were also in Slovak Republic, i.e. in the whole territory of Czechoslovakia. TB cattle gradual reduction conducing to its eradication in Czechoslovakia are documented in different indicators: TB cattle prevalence according to cattle categories (Tab. 31), prevalence and incidence per 100,000 cattle heads (Tab. 32), TB cattle prevalence rates according to individual sectors (Tab. 29), TB cow prevalence rates according to individual sectors (Tab. 30), numbers of cooperative and state ranches with TB cattle and in observation period (Tab. 27) and numbers of cattle in cooperative and state ranches with TB cattle and ranches officially TB-free (Tab. 28).

 

7. Post-eradication period

a) To retain the success achieved, the post-eradication period was dedicated to a special surveillance system consisting mainly of intensive country-wide allergic investigations the priority being given to critical places and strategic moments and periods. During post-eradication periods the priority interest of veterinary service was to maintain the TB cattle prevalence at zero level. Annual  average of tuberculin tests during 1969-1979 was 5,643,977 (ratio tests/population = 1.78), during 1980-1989 this average was 4,656,738 (ratio tests/population = 1.34) and during 1990-2000 this average was 1,641,894 (ratio tests/population = 0.79). Mass tuberculin testing has continued up today within the framework of epizootiological monitoring and surveillance. (Table 23).

b) Extraordinary attention was given to postmortem inspection of slaughtered cattle and other susceptible animal species to detect eventual TB herds.

c) The surviving source of M. bovis, represented by affected persons being in the past in contact with TB cattle or consuming TB infected or contaminated milk, was still threatening. Due to the fact that M. bovis infection among humans is of subclinical form (mostly extrapulmonary) the discovery was mainly ad hoc when investigating the patients for other reasons or during postmortem autopsy.

d) Any tuberculin positive animal or TB suspect bovine was immediately isolated and sent to sanitary slaughter following by postmortem macroscopic investigation and when necessary also by laboratory mycobacteriological investigation to confirm or reject provisional diagnosis. A lot of problems were caused by other mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium avium provoking allergic reactions similar as in case of M. bovis. Therefore the importance of using simultaneous tuberculin test, i.e. applying bovine (mammal) tuberculin and avian tuberculin simultaneously, was increasing. In the cases of diagnostic doubts difficult to decide, the measures followed the same strict procedure as in the cases of M. bovis confirmation (Tab. 34).

e) Epizootiological investigations of TB in other animal species based mainly on allergic testing were intensified and positive animals were immediately isolated and slaughtered.

f) During the post-eradication period there were applied extraordinary strict protection measures against eventual introduction of TB cattle from abroad. Strict anti-TB measures continued controlling trade in cattle and other TB susceptible animals and their products.

g) TB research was concentrated on the study of different types of mycobacteria in relation to M.bovis differential diagnosis and their epizootiology.

h)  Due to continuing tuberculin testing as the most important anti-TB activity the expenses were already low but still existing. (Tab. 24).

 

8. Conclusion

a) The eradication of the tuberculosis in cattle population at national level is not an easy task.  The imposition of a relatively short  eradication deadline and the more radical approach described above proved to be useful and effective under the Czech and Slovak Republics conditions.

b) Accelerated TB eradication during one cattle generation consisted in exploiting the reproduction process of the national cattle population with a temporary quota regulating national trade in meat and milk. Discovering and isolating  a l l  TB herds and a consistent system approach were the most important preconditions for the programme.

c) The active participation of about two thousand veterinarians in the field, slaughterhouses, laboratories, research and service management, as well as the close co-operation of the public  services, were crucial to the success achieved. A centralised State Veterinary Service, strong in manpower, material, facilities and budget proved to be the backbone of this extremely complex and demanding programme. Co-operation with farmer organisations and support of the public and their representatives were exemplary. Strict measures for very limited imports of cattle, due to increasing self-sufficiency in meat and milk production, helped to protect the country from M. bovis introduction.

d) The strategy and method adopted proved to be not only biologically, but also economically effective under the given conditions. The results have been reflected in substantial improvement of the breeding, production and reproductive performances of the cattle population and in ensuring tuberculosis-free milk and milk products. The absence of an effective eradication programme would  have resulted in further disease spreading, major economic losses and number of new TB affected humans would be major than at the beginning of the programme.

e) The eradication was achieved within one cattle generation, without reducing national cattle population or beef and milk production or the income of farmers. Ten years after TB elimination, the cumulative benefit/cost ratio was estimated to be 9 : 1. Post-eradication surveillance confirmed a tuberculosis-free status. The eradication of tuberculosis in cattle population has resulted in an increase in meat and milk production as well as in trade. Up to the year 2000, TB elimination in 1968 had averted previous losses which cumulated value was approximately  US$ 3700 million and had saved thousands of persons from becoming affected by this zoonosis.

e) The result of the eradication of TB in cattle  had lasting consequences. The TB-free status in cattle population in Czech Republic has continued up today. The TB-free status being in compliance with the International Code of the Office International of Epizootics (see paragraph 2.3 f) is documented also by the European Union Commission Decision. *)

*) “Official Journal of the European Union, L 102/75  dated 7.4.2004:  COMMISSION DECISION of 31 March 2004

(8) The Czech Republic as regards its territory submitted to the Commission documentation demonstrating compliance with all requirements laid down in Annex A(I)(4) to Directive 64/432/EEC in order that the whole territory of the Czech Republic may be declared officially free of tuberculosis as regards bovine herds.

(13) Following evaluation of the documentation submitted by Czech Republic the whole territory of that country should be declared officially free of tuberculosis, brucellosis and enzootic leucosis as regards bovine herds.”

 

References

 

1) Dražan J. a kol. (1962) - Tuberkuloza hospodářských zvířat. Praha, Československá akademie věd, 509 s.

2) Havelková M., Šulová M., Kubín M. (1987) – Problematika infekcí vyvolaných Mycobacteriem bovis v lidské populaci ČSR v posteliminačním období. Stud. pneumol. phtiseol.czechoslov., 47, s. 174-183

3) Chalupecký J., Marvan M. (1997) - Dějiny pojištovnictví v Československu, 3 díl, 1945-1992. Česká pojištovna a  Slovenská pojištovna, 444 stran

4) Klobouk A. (1923) – Klinické formy tuberkulosy skotu, jejich diagnosa a útlum se zřetelem k zákonitým ustanovením. Věstník Československého sjezdu protituberkulosního v Praze, 19-21 května 1923: str. 215-223

5) Klobouk A (1956) – Tuberkuloza hospodářských zvířat. Státní pojištovna, Praha

6) Klobouk A., Pavlas M. (1957) – Důležité problémy diagnostiky tuberkulozy při plnění celostátního úkolu v tlumení tuberkulozy domácích zvířat. Veterinářství, VII, str. 2-7

7) Klobouk A., Dražan J., Pavlas M. (1959)  - Tuberkuloza hospodářských zvířat. Praha, Státní zemědělské nakladatelství, 116 s

8) Kouba V. (1959) - Boj  proti tuberkulóze skotu hlavním současným úkolem veterinární služby. Veterinářství, IX, 1, str.1-6

9) Kouba V. (1959) - K některým novým opatřením na úseku boje proti tuberkulóze skotu. Veterinářství, IX, 11, str. 411-415

10) Kouba V.  (1960 - K  úloze vědy při  tlumení tuberkulózy skotu. Veterinární  medicina, Československá  akademie zemědělských věd, 6,11, str. 813-816

11) Kouba  V. (1962)  -  Výskyt  tuberkulózy  hospodářských  zvířat v Československu.   Opatření   proti   tuberkulóze  hospodářských zvířat.  In.: Dražan  a kol.:  Tuberkulóza hospodářských  zvířat. Státní zemědělské nakladatelství, Praha

12) Kouba  V.  (1962)  -   Dále  zlepšit  postup  proti  tuberkulóze a brucelóze skotu. Veterinářství, XII, 5, str. 129-132

13) Kouba V. (1963) - Příspěvek  k metodám postupu proti tuberkulóze a brucelóze skotu v Československu.  Veterinářství, XIII, 6, str. 241-246

14) Kouba V. (1963) – Borba s tjuberkuljozom i bruceljozom skota v Čechoslovakiji, Veterinaria, X, 10, str. 73-75

15) Kouba   V.  (1965)   -   Vývoj   a   stav  bovinní  tuberkulózy v Československu    s   epizootologického    hlediska.   Rozhledy v tuberkulóze a v nemocech plicních, XXV, 5, str. 330-343

16) Kouba V. , Bischof J. (1966) - Metody pro konečnou fázi eliminace tuberkulózy skotu v Československu. Veterinářství, 16, 4, str. 145-152

17) Kouba V., Polák L. (1967) - K epizootologickým ukazatelům efektu protituberkulozních opatření, Veterinářství, 17, str. 433-438

18) Kouba   V.  (1967)   -   Tuberkulóza    hospodářských   zvířat v Československu -  situace a perspektivy.  Medicina veterinaria, 1967, V, str. 3-9

19) Kouba V. , Editor et col. (1967) – Problematika konečné fáze ozdravení chovu skotu od tuberkulozy.Kabinet veterinární osvěty, Pardubice. 114 stran

20) Kouba V.  (1968) - Animální  zdroje Mycobacterium bovis  na území Československa.  Rozhledy v  tuberkulóze a  v nemocech  plicních, 28, 5, str. 291-301

21) Kouba V. (1999) – Historie eliminace bovinní tuberkulozy v České republice. Časopis lékařů českých, 138, č.15, 456-459

22) Kubín I. (Editor) – (1961-1989) Statistické ročenky Státní veterinární služby. (Statistical yearbooks of State Veterinary Service), Prague

23) Pavlas M. (1999) – K 30.výročí utlumení bovinní tuberkulozy u skotu v Československu. Acta Veterinaria Brno,

24) Pavlík I., Bartl J., Parmová I.,Havelková M., Kubín M., Bažant J. (1998) – Výskyt bov. tuberkulozy u zvířat a lidí v České republice v letech 1969 až 1996. Vet. Med. – Czech, 43, 221-25) Polák L. (1966) – Výsledky eradikace tuberkulozy skotu v ČSSR. Rozhledy v tuberkuloze a v nemocech plicních, 17, s. 197-201

26) Polák L.  (1967) - Eradikace tuberkulózy  skotu v Československu v letech    1959-1966    (Studie    legislativních,   metodických a organizačních   opatření).  Habilitační   práce,  Vysoká  škola veterinární v Brně

27) Polák L., Keček, J. (Editors) – (1972-1989) Komplexní technicko-ekonomické rozbory Státní veterinární služby, (Complex technical-economical analyses of State Veterinary Service), Prague

28) Popluhár L., Vrtiak O.J. (1960) – Boj proti tuberkuloze hospodárskych zvierat. Slovenské vydavatelstvo podohospodárskej literatury, Bratislava. 135 stran

29)  Popluhár L., Vrtiak O.J. (1966) – Latentné formy a anergenty v úlohe zdroja tuberkuloznej infekcie u hovadzieho dobytka. Vet. Med. 11, 8: 523-528

30) Raška K. (1959) – K epidemiologické problematice bovinního typu tuberkulozy u nás. Veterinářství, 9, s. 282-287

31) Trefný J., Hejdová E.,Trnka L. (1983) – Srovnání epidemiologického vývoje tuberkulozy dýchacích ústrojí a tuberkulozy mimoplicní v ČSR a SSR v letech 1966 až 1980. Stud. Pneumol.phtiseol.czechoslov., 43, s. 427-436

32) Zajíček, D. (Editor) – (1971-1988) Surveillance Anthropozoonoz v České republice. (Surveillance of anthropozoonoses in the Czech Republic, yearbooks). Institute of Veterinary Extension, State Veterinary Service, Pardubice.

 

Official documents:

1. Tuberkulosa. In: Směrnice Ministerstva zemědělství o ochraně zvířat před nákazami a o zdolání nákaz zvířat č.j. 78.650-X-3/51 ze dne 8. srpna 1951. .(Instructions for the protection of animals against infections and their eradication, Ministry of Agriculture) 64 pp.

2. Opatření proti tuberkuloze zvířat. Ministerstvo zemědělství, č.j. 112.195/1956 ze dne 27. dubna 1956 (Measures against bovine tuberculosis, Ministry of Agriculture, 27 April 1956)

3. Tlumení tuberkulozy – zpřesnění plánů. Instrukce Správy veterinární služby ministerstva zemědělství a lesního hospodářství, č.j. 226.679/57-534 ze dne 30 listopadu 1957 (Bovine tuberculosis control – improvement of eradication programmes. Instruction of State Veterinary Service)

4. Vyhláška č. 187 ministerstva zemědělství a lesního hospodářství ze dne 12.prosince 1958 o opatřeních proti tuberkuloze skotu. (Ordinance No. 187 of the Ministry of Agriculture on the measures against bovine tuberculosis)

5. Směrnice o opatřeních proti tuberkuloze hospodářských zvířat ze dne 30. prosince 1958. Ministerstvo zemědělství a lesního hospodářství. Sbírka instrukcí pro výkonné orgány národních výborů, Roč. 1959, částka 1, poř.č. 2. (Instruction of the Ministry of Agriculture against livestock tuberculosis)

6. Usnesení československé vlády č. 781 ze dne 16.září 1959 o postupné likvidaci tuberkulozy a brucelozy skotu v Československu. (Czechoslovak Government resolution No. 781 on gradual eradication of bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis)

7. Směrnice pro poskytování přímé pomoci jednotným zemědělským družstvům. Věstník ministerstva zemědělství a lesního hospodářství, 1959, částka. 36, poř.č.116

8. Směrnice k soutěžení jednotných zemědělských družstev “Za ozdravení chovu skotu”. Věstník ministerstva zemědělství a lesního hospodářství, 1960, částka 6, poř.č. 10

9. Pokyny k provádění tuberkulinových zkoušek u hospodářských zvířat. Věstník MZLH š. 3/1959, č.j.534-197.771/1958 ze dne 31. prosince 1958

10. Opatření k tlumení tuberkulozy a neplodnosti hospodářských zvířat. Ministerstvo zemědělství, č.j. 87.981/224/59 ze dne 28. srpna 1959 (Measures of the Ministry of Agriculture on the control of livestok  tuberculosis and sterility)

11. Výnos  ministerstva zemědělství a lesního hospodářství stanovující standardní metodiku laboratorního vyšetřování na tuberkulozu

12. Směrnice pro ochranu pracovníků zaměstnaných při ošetřování zvířat stižených tuberkulozou. Výnos ministerstva zdravotnictví,č.j. HE 3724 ze dne 27.6.1960

 

13. Zákon č. 66 ze dne 26. června 1961 o veterinární péči (Law No. 66/1961 of veterinary care)

 

14. Vyhláška č. 154 ministerstva zemědělství, lesního a vodního hospodářství ze dne 30. prosince 1961, kteriou se provádějí některá ustanoven zákona o veterinární péči (Ordinance No. 154/1961 of Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Waters for the implementation of some provisions of the law of veterinary care dated 30 December 1961)

15. Směrnice  ministerstva zemědělství, lesního  a vodního hospodářství o veterinární péči v chovech zvířat , č.j. 60400/62-43 ze dne 1. července 1962

16. Směrnice ministerstva zemědělství pro poskytování přímé pomoci jednotným zemědělským družstvům. Věstník ministerstva zemědělství,  č. 21/1963 ze dne 16. února 1962 (Instruction for veterinary care in animal breeding -   issued by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Waters under    No. 60.400/62-43 in Prague, 1 July 1962)

17. Nové tiskopisy: výkazy, záznamy o tuberkulinaci a potvrzení o výsledku tuberkulinace, vzor osvědčení pro tuberkulozy prosté závody, atd.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annex – tables

 

 

Tab. 1

REGIONS ACCORDING THE TB CATTLE PREVALENCE,

CZECHOSLOVAKIA 1.7.1960

=============================================

Prevalence rate                Number of Regions

----------------------------------------------------------

0-10 %                                   18

10-20 %                                 36

20-30 %                                 17

30-40 %                                 13

40-50 %                                 13

50-60 %                                  9

60-70 %                                  3

----------------------------------------------------------

Total                                     109

=============================================

 

Tab. 2

BOVINE TUBERCULIN TESTS, INVESTIGATED CATTLE AND POSITIVE RESULTS,

CZECH REPUBLIC, 1953 – 1968

==============================================================================

                  Number of                  Ratio                Number of              Percentage          Positive    Percentage

Year       tuberculin tests            test/                investigated         of investigated      results      of positive

                                                      /population         cattle                       cattle                                   results

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1953                598 310                  0.21                                                                                110 839         18.5

1954                682 809                  0.24

1955                792 876                  0.28

1956             1 580 507                  0.55

1957             2 143 651                  0.75                   1 508 570                     53.00               289 505         19.1

1958             2 255 578                  0.78                   2 095 830                     72.01

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1959             3 512 398                  1.16                   2 629 705                     88.05               357 903        10.19

1960             3 695 000                  1.23                   2 769 776                     91.10               191 842          5.19

1961             4 244 789                  1.47                   2 956 412                     94.39               117 275          2.76

1962             4 553 510                  1.61                   2 950 998                     94.60                 71 467          1.57

1963             4 985 552                  1.73                   2 948 861                     94.90                 57 073          1.14

1964             5 548 905                  1.93                   2 959 833                     96.56                 52 834          0.95

1965             5 884 803                  2.12                   2 931 821                     97.35                 43 215          0.73

1966             5 944 433                  2.13                   2 937 009                     96.81                 21 585          0.36

1967             6 109 595                  2.20                   2 946 194                     97.01                 14 603          0.24

1968             5 825 501                  2.17                   2 855 558                     96.93                   5 242          0.09

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1969             5 274 399                  1.79                                                                                    3 692          0.07

1970             5 941 897                  2.01                                                                                    1 782          0.03

1971             5 748 263                  1.91                                                                                    1 724          0.03

1972             6 034 455                  1.95                                                                                    1 810          0.03

1973             5 724 360                  1.81                                                                                    1 717          0.03

1974             5 622 914                  1.78                                                                                    1 689          0.03

1975             5 582 701                  1.75                                                                                    1 116          0.02

1976             5 280 454                  1.65                                                                                       743          0.01

1977             5 805 872                  1.74                                                                                       511          0.008

1978             5 457 376                  1.59                                                                                       478          0.008

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1979             5 611 056                  1.64                                                                                       420          0.007

1980             5 662 255                  1.62                                                                                       234          0.004

1981             5 811 534                  1.63                                                                                       217          0.004

1982             5 991 538                  1.69                                                                                       269          0.004

1983             5 576 010                  1.57                                                                                       227          0.004

1984             5 721 787                  1.63                                                                                       200          0.004

1985             3 933 249                  1.14                                                                                       182          0.004

1986             3 651 347                  1.05                                                                                       166          0.004

1987             3 529 099                  1.02                                                                                       217          0.004

1988             3 437 117                  0.99                                                                                         77          0.002

===============================================================================

 

TAB. 3

TUBERCULOUS CATTLE PREVALENCE, INCIDENCE AND EXTICTION,

CZECH REPUBLIC, 1960

===============================================================

INPUT DATA:

     total number of animals existing  at the beginning of the period                     2987000

     total number of animals existing in the period                                                    4161320

     average total number of animals existing in the period                                      3008500

     number of diseased animals at the beginning of the period                                 628276

     number of diseased animals existing in the period                                               753558

     average number of diseased animals in the period                                               629557

     number of new diseased animals in the  period                                                    125282

     number of extinct diseased animals   (dead+slaughtered) in the period              124001

RATES:

     Initial point prevalence rate of diseased animals           =   0.2103

     Period prevalence rate of diseased animals                    =   0.1811

     Average prevalence rate of diseased animals                 =   0.2093

 

     Incidence rate of diseased animals to existing total      =   0.0301

     Incidence rate of diseased animals to average total      =   0.0416

     Incidence rate of diseased animals to initial total          =   0.0419

 

     Extinction rate of diseased animals to existing total      =   0.0298

     Extinction rate of diseased animals to average total      =   0.0412

     Extinction rate of diseased animals to initial total          =   0.0415

=================================================================

 

Tab. 4

SELECTED RATIOS OF TUBERCULOUS CATTLE TO OTHER

EPIZOOTIOLOGICAL CATEGORIES, CZECH REPUBLIC, 1 January 1960

========================================================

INPUT DATA:

     number of diseased animals at the given time                  628276

     number of healthy animals at the given time                  2358824

     number of intrafocal animals at the given time                 520333

     number of animals at risk at the given time                       288426

     number of investigated animals at the given time          2769776

RATIOS:

     Ratio of diseased/healthy animals              =     0.2664

     Ratio of healthy/diseased animals              =     3.7544

     Ratio of diseased/intrafocal animals           =     1.2074

     Ratio of intrafocal/diseased animals           =     0.8282

     Ratio of diseased/at risk animals                 =     2.1783

     Ratio of at risk/diseased animals                 =     0.4591

     Ratio of diseased/investigated animals      =     0.2268

     Ratio of investigated/diseased animals      =     4.4085

============================================

 

Tab. 5

RATIOS OF NEW CASES OF TUBERCULOSIS IN CATTLE TO

SPACE AND TIME UNITS, CZECH REPUBLIC, 1960

=====================================================

INPUT DATA:

number of disease new cases - 191842

space measure unit - km2

number of space measure units of the territory -78864

time measure unit - day

number of time measure units of the period - 365

RATIOS:

   Ratio of disease new cases per one space unit       =     2.4326 / km2

   Ratio of territory per one new case of disease       =     0.4111  km2    :  1

   Ratio of disease new cases per one time unit          =   525.5945 / day

   Ratio of time period per one new case of disease   =    0.0019  day   :  1

=====================================================

 

Tab. 6

RATIOS OF NEW CASES OF TUBERCULOSIS IN CATTLE TO TOTAL NUMBER

OF TUBERCULOUS CATTLE, CZECH REPUBLIC, 1960

=============================================================================

INPUT DATA:

number of disease new cases - 191842

total number of diseased animals  at the beginning of the period - 628276

total number of diseased animals existing  in the period - 820118

total average number of diseased animals  existing in the period - 629557

RATIOS:

     Ratio of disease new cases per one diseased animal  existing at the beginning of the period   =    0.3053

     Ratio of diseased animals existing at the beginning  of the period per one new case of disease  =    3.2750

     Ratio of disease new cases per one diseased   animal existing in the period      =    0.2339

     Ratio of diseased animals existing in the period  per one new case of disease  =    4.2750

     Ratio of disease new cases per one diseased  animal of average number in the period      =    0.3047

     Ratio of diseased animals’ average number existing  in the period per one new case of disease  =    3.2816                             

==============================================================================

 

Tab. 7

BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS TERRITORIAL DENSITY AND DISTRIBUTION,

CZECH REPUBLIC, 1 January 1961

====================================================================

 Subterritory               km2        Diseased     Prevalence      Average      Proportion Percentage

                                                    animals            rate               number         of Total     of Total

                                                                                                   per km2

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 Central Bohemia      11486        148223          33.41              12.90             0.234962     23.4962

 South Bohemia        11347          71859          19.48                6.33             0.113910     11.3910

 West Bohemia         10866          91167          30.48                8.39             0.144517     14.4517

 North Bohemia          7813          89912          47.23              11.51             0.142528     14.2528

 East Bohemia           11252          69136          12.22                6.14              0.109594    10.9594

 South Moravia        15029          88292          15.33                5.87              0.139960    13.9960

 North Moravia        11065          72249          19.54                6.53              0.114529    11.4529

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 T o t a l                     78858        630838          20.82                8.00              1.000000  100.0000

====================================================================

 

Tab. 8

PROGNOSIS/PLANNING AND REALITY OF BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS

ERADICATION PROGRAMME, CZECH REPUBLIC, 1960-1968

=======================================================================

Number of TB cattle at the beginning of the programme in 1959: 628 276

Target at the end of 1968:  0

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

End of Year    I n   L i n e a r   F o r m                            I n     C u r v e   F o r m           

                      ------------------------------------------        ----------------------------------------      REALITY

                      Supposed number    Percentage           Supposed number    Percentage              number

                        of  TB cattle             of final value           of TB cattle       of final value

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1960                   558 467                   88.8889                     609 331                96.9846            630 838

1961                   488 659                   77.7778                     554 781                88.3022            565 659

1962                   418 850                   66.6667                     471 207                75.0000            456 569

1963                   349 042                   55.5556                     368 687                58.6825            349 757

1964                   279 233                   44.4444                     259 588                41.3176            249 284

1965                   209 425                   33.3333                     157 069                25.0001            158 267

1966                   139 616                   22.2222                       73 494                11.6978              80 009

1967                     69 808                   11.1111                       18 945                  3.0154              19 477

1968                              0                              0                                0                           0                      0

=======================================================================

 

Tab. 9

BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS  PREVALENCE AND INCIDENCE,

CZECH REPUBLIC, 1958 – 1968

=============================================================

             TB cattle       Prevalence     Number of  TB  cattle      Incidence      Extinction

             at the end                             ---------------------------      -------------------------------

Year           of                 %                 new       eliminated            to average number

             the year                                                   extinct                      of cattle    

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1958    497 006           17.08

1959    628 276           21.03              357 903    226 633               0.1214      0.0768

1960    630 838           20.82              191 842    189 280               0.0416      0.0408

1961    565 659           18.06              117 275    182 454               0.0380      0.0592

1962    456 569           14.70                71 476    180 566               0.0229      0.0579

1963    349 757           11.26                57 073    163 885               0.0184      0.0528

1964    249 284             8.13                52 832    153 305               0.0171      0.0497

1965    158 267             5.26                43 215    134 232               0.0142      0.0442

1966     80 009              2.64                21 285      99 543               0.0071      0.0329

1967     19 477              0.64                14 603      75 135               0.0048      0.0248

1968              0                   0                  5 243      24 720               0.0018      0.0083

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Total                                                  932 747  1 429 753

==============================================================

 

Tab. 10

INVESTIGATED  COWS,  TB NUMBER AND PREVALENCE,

CZECH REPUBLIC, 1958 – 1968

===================================================

At the      Number  of        Percentage       Number of          Prevalence

End of     Investigated                                  TB cows                  %

Year           Cows                  

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1958           1 077 595             74.73                 357 899               24.82

1959           1 306 008             91.35                 461 345               32.26

1960           1 315 938             93.23                 450 898               31.96

1961           1 403 429             97.50                 425 118               29.52

1962           1 417 155             98.40                 352 093               24.45

1963           1 387 830             99.32                 274 108               19.59

1964           1 386 423             99.86                 201 434               14.51

1965           1 370 145             99.96                 123 055                8.98

1966           1 358 082             99.76                   59 071                4.34

1967                                                                    13 822                1.03

1968                                                                             0                0.00

===================================================

 

Tab. 11

TUBERCULOUS CATTLE  CHRONOLOGICAL TIME SERIES,

CZECH REPUBLIC, 1959-1968

=====================================================

 Order      End of                Variable             I    n    d    e    x

 Number   Year                   Value              Current       Chained

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  1              1959                   628276          100.00         100.00

  2              1960                   630838          100.41         100.41

  3              1961                   565659            90.03           89.67

  4              1962                   456569            72.67           80.71

  5              1963                   349757            55.67           76.61

  6              1964                   249284            39.68           71.27

  7              1965                   158267            25.19           63.49

  8              1966                     80009            12.73           50.55

  9              1967                     19477              3.10           24.34

  10            1968                             0              0.00             0.00

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 Estimated linear trend (least square line):   Y  =  313813.59    -  80955.39  X

=======================================================

 

Tab. 12

NEW AND EXTINCT TUBERCULOUS CATTLE,

CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1959 – 1968

====================================================

                 Number  of  tuberculosis  cattle               Relative values

Year       ---------------------------------------------            ----------------------

              At the         New      Extinct    At the     Incidence   Extinction

              beginning                                  end            rate            rate

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1959      639976     522590    340041    822525       0.1231       0.0801

1960      822525     317124    245856    893793       0.0729       0.0565

1961      893793     212172    309352    796613       0.0476       0.0694

1962      796613     116231    273673    639171       0.0257       0.0606

1963      639171     83405      245817    476759       0.0185       0.0547

1964      476759     84185      223974    336970       0.0188       0.0502

1965      336970     66775      197178    206567       0.0151       0.0447

1966      206567     36896      144115    99348         0.0083       0.0325

1967      99348       27097      106968    19477         0.0061       0.0240

1968      19477       13836      33313         0              0.0032       0.0076

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Total                   1480311     2120287     0

===================================================

 

Tab. 13

TUBERCULOUS CATTLE CATEGORY STRUCTURE

IN ABSOLUTE VALUES, CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1958 – 1968

=================================================

 End of      Total         Dairy           H  e  i  f  e  r  s     Calves    Others

 year                            cows       >1 year    3-12 m.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1958         639976      456321     -   n  o  t     r  e  c  o  r  d  e  d    -

1959         859557      617627     -     129998    -        32823     79109

1960         893793      622726     -     117604    -        23812     129651

1961         796613      587761      87074     35785      13821     72021

1962         639171      487894      49029     25261      8336       68651

1963         476759      373716      23762     10371      5259       63651

1964         336970      271424      12759     5417        2728       44642

1965         206567      161160      7645       2821        1792       33149

1966         99348        73521        3652       1161        748         20266

1967         19477        13822        538         158          113         4846

1968              0               0               0             0             0              0

=================================================

 

Tab. 14

TUBERCULOUS CATTLE CATEGORY STRUCTURE IN  % ,

CZECHOSLOVAKIA 1958 – 1968

=================================================

End of     Total         Diary          H  e  i  f  e  r  s     Calves   Others

year            %           cows         >1 year   3-12 m.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1958        100.00        71.30     -    n  o  t     r  e  c  o  r  d  e  d    -

1959        100.00        71.85     -             15.12    -        3.82       9.20

1960        100.00        69.67     -             13.16    -        2.66      14.51

1961        100.00        73.88        10.95          4.49        1.73       8.94

1962        100.00        76.33          7.67          3.95        1.30      10.74

1963        100.00        78.38          4.98          2.18        1.10      13.35

1964        100.00        80.55          3.79          1.61        0.81      13.25

1965        100.00        78.02          3.70          1.37        0.87      16.05

1966        100.00        74.00          3.68          1.17        0.75      20.40

1967        100.00        70.97          2.76          0.81        0.58      24.88

1968            0                0                0               0             0            0

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1961-67   100.00        78.49          7.16          3.14        1.27      11.94

=================================================

 

Tab. 15

FINDING OF TUBERCULOSIS IN SLAUGHTERED

CATTLE, CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1959 – 1968

=========================================

Year       Total        Cows       Heifers    Calves  Others

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

1959      150429      88494        21096       3058      37781

1960      192199     108638       26854       4227      52480

1961      214736     117721       32594       3998      60423

1962      245291     144495       38991       4343      57462

1963      234588     130978       36987       4563      62060

1964      205685     119928       30648       3919      51190

1965      185639     116151       22203       3482      43803

1966      138637      89279        16212       1826      31320

1967       90689       59557        10257       994        19881

1968       26334      16415         3858         330        5761

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Total    1684227   991656      239700     30710    422161

     %       100.00       58.88         14.23        1.82       25.07

==========================================

 

Tab. 16

CONFISCATIONS OF SLAUGHTERED CATTLE AND ORGANS DUE TO

TUBERCULOSIS FINDINGS, CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1959 – 1968

=========================================================

                                                                                                       Total body

               Lungs      Liver     Intestine    Uterus      Udder       non comestible

Year          TB           TB            TB            TB            TB          or conditionally

                                                                                                        comestible 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1959      131777      43484        46601        1969          5105           10887

1960      179452      47752        53164        2415          6231           12810

1961      198808      4934          56946        2915          7092           7762

1962      225899      53771        66159        2964          7636           13586

1963      242022      60646        79949        5905          15562         111060

1964      191204      41853        56782        3024          8312           66796

1965      169952      36101        51262        2044          6875           61511

1966      127510      21090        36794        1115          3762           41345

1967       83303       12189        25426        507            2373           24535

1968       22961       3011          8394          128            406             8619

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Total  1572888      369237      418177      22986        63354         358911

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Percentage of slaughtered cattle with TB findings:

of total   93.39        21.92        28.59          21.31

of cows                                                       2.32          6.39

=========================================================

 

Tab. 17

BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS - CATTLE POPULATION

EPIZOOTIOLOGICAL STRUCTURE, CZECH REPUBLIC, 1 January 1964

==========================================================

E P I Z O O T I O L O G I C A L   S T R U C T U R E

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                                                                   Number               Proportion

 

  Epizootiologically healthy animals                   2655243                 0.8663

    Non-exposed epi.healthy animals                        1715243                 0.5596

    Exposed epi.healthy animals                                   940000                 0.3067

      Indirectly exposed healthy animals                          590000                 0.1925

      Directly exposed healthy animals                             350000                 0.1142

 

  Epizootiologically indeterminate animals            60000                  0.0196

    Epiz.indeterminate anim. without symptoms         59470                  0.0194

    Epiz.indeterminate animals with symptoms               530                  0.0002

 

  Epizootiologically affected (diseased) animals   349757                0.1141

    Epiz.affected animals without symptoms               348527                0.1137

    Epiz.affected animals with symptoms                    1230                     0.0004

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                   T o t a l                                                    3065000              1.0000

==========================================================

Tab. 18

GRADE OF COINCIDENCE BETWEEN COWS MARKED AS TUBERCULIN

POSITIVE AND POSTMORTEM TB FINDING, CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1963-1967

=============================================================

Indicator                                                                  Number                          Percentage

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Slaughtered cows                                                   1,939,799                          100.00

 

Cows not marked as tuberculin positive             1,386,460                            71.47

Cows marked as tuberculin positive                       553,339                            28.53

 

Postmortem TB findings                                           559,201                            28.83

Postmortem TB finding in cows

            -  marked as tuberculin positive                   468 050                            84.16

            -  not marked as tuberculin positive               89151                            15.94

 

Cows marked as tuberculin positive

      without postmortem TB finding                         117,522                            21.24

                                             

=============================================================

 

Tab. 19

CASES OF CATTLE WITH ADVANCED CLINICALLY

RECOGNIZABLE TUBERCULOSIS, CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1960-1966

===================================================

Year                           Cases        TB Point Prevalence       Ratio

                                                      at the end of year     cases/prevalence

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1960                          32,993             893,793                     0.0369   

1961                          38,572             796,613                     0.0484

1962                          44,113             639,171                     0.0690

1963                          33,459             476,759                     0.0702

1964                          26,599             336,970                     0.0789

1965                          24,026             206,567                     0.1163

1966                          11,672               99,348                     0.1175

1967                            5,907               19,477                     0.3033

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Total                       211,434         (3,449,221)                   6.13                              

====================================================

 

Tab 20

BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS  - BACTERIOLOGICAL

INVESTIGATIONS, CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1963-1966

====================================================

Year                Samples         Number         Positive      Percentage

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                         Milk:

1963                                        4,873              155                3.18

1964                                        5,896              112                1.89

1965                                        4,961              184                3.71

1966                                        2,221              138                6.17

                         Sputum:

1963                                        1,525              146                9.57

1964                                        3,807              386              10.14

1965                                        5,099              351                6.88

1966                                        1,714              190              11.09

                         Organs:

1964                                        1,566              538              34.36

1965                                        3,142           1,468              46.72

1966                                        4,177           2,667              63.85

=====================================================

 

Tab. 21

TRANSFER OF HEALTHY COWS AND HEIFERS FOR TB CATTLE

 REPLACEMENT, CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1962-1968

====================================================

Year        Total            inter-           inter-region           inter-enterprises

                                     provincial   within province    within region

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1962      179 641         16 412              20 109                  143 120

1963      179 821         19 106              17 796                  143 120

1964      160 067         29 014              21 026                  110 027

1965      175 513         48 951              20 375                  106 187

1966      161 956         40 473              21 110                  100 373

1967      148 553         29 539              18 284                  100 730

1968      209 636         23 788              19 735                  166 093

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Total   1 215 187       207 283            138 455                 869 449

%            100.00         17.06                  11.39                      71.55

=====================================================

                                                  

Tab. 22

BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA – FINANCIAL AID TO

AGRICULTURE  ENTERPRISES FOR TB ERADICATION PROGRAMME (in Kčs)

==============================================================

        Year                 Czechoslovakia                   Czech republic

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------      

         1960                  74 900 000                            49 434 000

         1961                 120 900 000                           79 794 000

         1962                 108 900 000                           71 874 000

         1963                 124 200 000                           81 972 000

         1964                 130 600 000                           86 196 000

         1965                   98 900 000                           65 274 000

         1966                 100 000 000                           66 000 000

         1967                 193 000 000                         127 380 000

         1968                 101 000 000                           66 660 000

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

        Total              1 052 400 000                         694 320 000

=========================================================

Note: 10 Kčs  =  1  USD

 

Tab. 23

TUBERCULIN TESTS IN CATTLE POPULATION, CZECH REPUBLIC, 1955-2000

=======================================================================

Years                Tests                    Ratio              Annual          Positive    Percentage      Ratio

                           number      tests/population   Average         Results                            cattle/positive

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1955-1958      6 772 615               1.75895         1 693 153             ?                  

 

Country-wide survey:

1959               3 512 398               1.75895         3 512 398         357 903       10.1897          9.8138

 

Preparatory and elimination phase:

1959-1968     50 304 486              1.65185        5 030 449         933 039          1.8547        53.9147

1960-1968     46 792 088              1.73611        5 199 120         575 136          1.2291        81.3583

 

Post-elimination phases:

1969-1979     62 083 747              1.78774        5 643 977           15 682          0.0253    3958.9177

1980-1989     46 567 384              1.33857        4 656 738             1 747          0.0038    26665.629

1990-2000     18 060 839              0.78542        1 641 894             1 509          0.0084    11968.747

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Summaries:

1955-2000   183 789 071              1.36918        3 955 415         951 977           0.0052       193.06041

1959-2000   177 016 456              1.43080        4 214 678         951 977           0.5377       185.94615

1960-2000   173 504 058              1.44711        4 431 806         594 075           0.0034       292.05799               

=======================================================================

 

Tab. 24

TB CATTLE ERADICATION  BENEFIT/COST RATIOS, CZECH REPUBLIC, 1959-1978,

IN MONETARY VALUES (in million  Kcs)

=======================================================================

Year     Benefit     Cost       Annual         C u m u l a t i v e          Cumulative

                                           Benefit/Cost    Benefit      Cost                 B/C

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Eradication phase:

1959         10           90           0.1111               10             90                   0.1111

1960       100         144           0.6944             110           234                   0.4701

1961       200         182           1.0989             310           416                   0.7452

1962       300         172           1.7442             610           588                   1.0374

1963       400         171           2.3392           1010           759                   1.3307

1964       500         168           2.9762           1510           927                   1.6289

1965       600         138           4.3478           2110         1065                   1.9812

1966       750         130           5.7692           2860         1195                   2.3933

1967       900         181           4.9724           3760         1376                   2.7326

1968     1039         112           9.2768           4799         1488                   3.2251

 

Post-eradication phase:

1969     1039           50         20.7800           5838         1538                   3.7958

1970     1039           30         34.6333           6877         1568                   4.3858

1971     1039           20         51.9500           7916         1588                   4.9849

1972     1039           15         69.2667           8955         1603                   5.5864

1973     1039           10        103,900            9994         1613                   6.1959

1974     1039             8       129.8750         11033         1621                   6.8063

1975     1039             5       207.8000         12072         1626                   7.4244

1976     1039             5       207.8000         13111         1631                   8.0386

1977     1039             5       207.8000         14150         1636                   8.6491

1978     1039             5       207.8000         15189         1641                   9.2559

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  Ratio of total cumulative benefit / total cumulative cost  =  9.2559   =  1 :   0.1080

  Ratio of total cumulative cost / total cumulative benefit  =  0.1080   =  1 :   9.2559

  Difference between total cumulative benefit  and total cumulative cost =   13548 million Kcs

=====================================================================                                               

 

Tab. 25

TUBERCULOSIS IN CATTLE - ECONOMIC EFFECT A F T E R  ERADICATION

AND COMBINED WITH PREVIOUS BENEFIT, CZECH REPUBLIC, 1969-1978 (1959-1968)

======================================================================

INPUT DATA:

     post-eradication period  - 1969-1978

     loss due to disease at programme beginning – 1,039 million Kcs

     total cost of the programme – 1,489 million Kcs

     discount rate of programme  cost - 0.05

RESULT:

P o s t -              Benefit -       Cumulative              Ratio           Ratio cumul.

eradication   value saved        benefit -               cumulative      benefit/

  year                      in             value saved in          benefit/        /discounted

                        million Kcs      million Kcs            /total cost       total cost

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1969                  1039                   1039                    0.6978               0.7327

1970                  1039                   2078                    1.3956               1.5386

1971                  1039                   3117                    2.0934               2.4233

1972                  1039                   4156                    2.7911               3.3926

1973                  1039                   5195                    3.4889               4.4528

1974                  1039                   6234                    4.1867               5.6106

1975                  1039                   7273                    4.8845               6.8730

1976                  1039                   8312                    5.5823               8.2476

1977                  1039                   9351                    6.2801               9.7424

1978                  1039                 10390                    6.9778              11.3662

 

Total cumulative benefit including eradication programme period and post-eradication period:

     cumulative benefit value at eradication programme end  in 1968 = 4,799 million Kcs

 

P o s t -         Value saved      Total cumulative                 Ratio            Ratio cumul.

eradication                              value saved from             cumulative        benefit/

  year                    in              programme beginning        benefit/        /discounted

                       million Kcs          in million Kcs                /total cost        total cost

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1969                 1039                         5838                             3.9208            4.1168

1970                 1039                         6877                             4.6185            5.0919

1971                 1039                         7916                             5.3163            6.1543

1972                 1039                         8955                             6.0141            7.3102

1973                 1039                         9994                             6.7119            8.5663

1974                 1039                       11033                             7.4097            9.9297

1975                 1039                       12072                             8.1075          11.4080

1976                 1039                       13111                             8.8052          13.0093

1977                 1039                       14150                             9.5030          14.7423

1978                 1039                       15189                           10.2008          16.6160

====================================================================

 

Tab. 26

TUBERCULOSIS CAUSED BY MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS

IN HUMAN POPULATION, CZECH REPUBLIC, 1969 -1996

===================================

Year                 Number of patients

                         infected by M. bovis

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1969                         39

1970                         48

1971                         29

1972                         46

1973                         36

1974                         23

1975                         24

1976                         32

1977                         26

1978                         24

1979                         19

1980                         14

1981                         11

1982                         19

1983                         13

1984                         12

1985                           3

1986                           7

1987                           4

1988                           8

1989                           7

1990                           6

1991                           6

1992                           5

1993                           5

1994                           4

1995                           3

1996                           3

=============================================

 

Tab. 27

IV. BOVINE TB IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA – NUMBER OF COOPERATIVE AND STATE

RANCHES WITH TB CATTLE AND IN OBSERVATION PERIOD, 1960-1967

==================================================================

Date             Ranches                    %              Ranches               %               

                     with TB cattle      of total         in observation   of total                      

                                                   ranches                                   ranches

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.7.1960        11 486                    79.62             1 006                  6.97

1.1 1961        10 485                    75.77             1 314                  9.49

1.7.1961          8 763                    69.58             1 555                 12.35

1.1.1962          6 342                    63.81             1 248                 12.44

1.7.1962          5 259                    58.91             1 230                 13.78

1.1.1963          4 541                    51.61             1 272                 14.45

1.7.1963          4 051                    47.66             1 175                 13.82

1.1.1964          3 699                    43.65             1 220                 14.51

1.7.1964          2 910                    36.16             1 033                 12.85

1.1.1965          2 432                    30.90             1 050                 13.34

1.7.1965          2 043                    26.95             1 002                 13.21

1.1.1966          1 482                    19.89             1 002                 13.45

1.7.1966          1 097                    14.99                878                 12.00

1.1.1967             718                      9.85                899                 12.34

==========================================================

 

Tab. 28

BOVINE TB IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA – NUMBER OF CATTLE IN COOPERATIVE

AND STATE RANCHES WITH TB CATTLE AND TB CATTLE FREE, 1960-1967

=================================================================

Date            Ranches     with    TB     cattle                              Ranches officially TB-free

                    -------------------------------------------                ------------------------------------------

                    number of TB cattle                   %                    number of cattle             %

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.7.1960               808 255                         24.28                       321 257                    9.65

1.1.1961               829 095                         24.08                       379 094                  11.01

1.7.1961               811 349                         22.61                       446 838                  12.46

1.1.1962               734 850                         20.09                       538 404                  14.72

1.7.1962               679 251                         17.88                       621 183                  16.35

1.1.1963               589 736                         15.83                       821 142                  22.04

1.7.1963               516 024                         13.64                       972 517                  25.71

1.1.1964               438 173                         11.69                    1 193 269                  31.83

1.7.1964               382 001                         10.00                    1 314 242                  34.47

1.1.1965               312 123                           8.32                    1 436 824                  38.30

1.7.1965               248 851                           6.61                    1 578 219                  41.89

1.1.1966               194 489                           5.22                    1 879 248                  50.48

1.7.1966               138 458                           3.66                    2 162 851                  57.13

1.1.1967                 95 829                           2.55                    2 350 429                  62.35

=================================================================

 

Tab. 29

TB CATTLE PREVALENCE RATE ACCORDING TO SECTORS

(%  TB OF INVESTIGATED CATTLE), CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1959-1968

================================================================

Datum                  Cooperative      State farms         Other state         Private            Total

                             sector                                                sector              sector

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.1.1959                  22.89                  48.25                 34.55               10.17            23.13

1.7.1959                  22.76                  48.67                 38.89                9.68             23.39

1.1.1960                  23.08                  41.97                 33.89                9.96             22.00

1.7.1960                  22.53                  48.35                 32.93                9.56             23.43

1.1.1961                  21.75                  45.89                 31.82                8.69             22.68

1.7.1961                  19.80                  43.91                 29.19                8.93             21.39

1.1.1962                  16.97                  38.33                 24.57                7.98             18.66

1.7.1962                  15.18                  34.58                 25.89                7.81             17.66

1.1.1963                  12.95                  29.81                 24.58                7.16             15.06

1.7.1963                  11.16                  24.94                 23.36                6.70             13.11

1.1.1964                    9.29                  21.10                 20.03                5.84             11.20 

1.7.1964                    7.86                  17.62                 17.00                5.23               9.66

1.1.1965                    6.41                  14.68                 12.47                3.95               7.89

1.7.1965                    5.05                  11.30                   9.29                3.02               6.26

1.1.1966                    3.96                    9.09                   6.85                1.93               4.84

1.7.1966                    2.68                    6.69                   4.97                1.07               3.36

1.1.1967                    1.83                    4.91                   2.82                0.54               2.30

1.7.1967                    1.03                    3.01                   1.82                0.32               1.36

1.1.1968                    0.31                    0.98                   0.89                0.10               0.45

31.12.1968                0.00                    0.00                   0.00                0.00               0.00

=================================================================

 

Tab. 30

TB COW PREVALENCE RATE ACCORDING TO SECTORS

(%  TB OF INVESTIGATED  COWS), CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1959-1968

================================================================

Datum                  Cooperative      State farms         Other state         Private            Total

                             sector                                                sector              sector

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.1.1959                  34.44                  64.46                 51.14               12.08            32.08

1.7.1959                  36.78                  66.99                 58.70               11.85            33.12

1.1.1960                  38.10                  67.10                 54.04               11.64            32.87

1.7.1960                  38.13                  70.37                 53.46               11.64            34.54

1.1.1961                  36.53                  66.00                 50.19               10.87            32.94

1.7.1961                  33.91                  63.15                 45.17               11.26            31.52

1.1.1962                  30.83                  59.88                 41.84               10.37            29.28

1.7.1962                  27.28                  53.81                 39.99               10.00            26.85

1.1.1963                  23.76                  49.73                 37.83                 9.32            24.27

1.7.1963                  20.41                  42.06                 37.21                 8.80            21.32

1.1.1964                  17.50                  38.10                 33.32                 7.80            19.98 

1.7.1964                  14.85                  32.65                 28.36                 6.98            16.53

1.1.1965                  12.33                  28.06                 21.83                 5.39            13.92

1.7.1965                    9.33                  21.88                 16.80                 4.11            10.82

1.1.1966                    7.06                  16.93                 13.22                 2.68              8.27

1.7.1966                    4.65                  11.98                   9.64                 1.49              5.63

1.1.1967                    3.05                    8.64                   5.85                 0.74              3.78

1.7.1967                    1.52                    5.01                   3.89                 0.42              2.09

1.1.1968                    0.40                    1.91                   1.86                 0.14              0.72

31.12.1968                0.00                    0.00                   0.00                 0.00              0.00

================================================================

 

Tab. 31

BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS PREVALENCE  ACCORDING TO CATTLE CATOGORIES,

CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1959-1968

================================================================

Datum                  Cattle             Cows           Heifers          Heifers        Calves      Others

                              total                                 > 1 year        3m-1 year      <3m

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.1.1959             639 976          456 321         ?                  ?                     ?                   ?

1.7.1959             724 534          521 737       122 001         ?                   35 048           ?

1.1.1960             822 525          617 627       129 998         ?                   32 823           ?

1.7.1960             876 334          623 912       127 367         ?                   29 695           ?

1.1.1961             893 793          622 726       117 604         ?                   23 812           ?

1.7.1961             878 225          616 253       109 604         ?                   20 924           ?

1.1.1962             796 613          588 559         87 225      37 785            13 821            ?     

1.7.1962             734 732          545 337         70 659      32 991            12 993            ?

1.1.1963             639 171          487 894         49 029      25 261              8 336           68 651

1.7.1963             561 073          426 172         35 896      17 277              7 651           74 007

1.1.1964             476 759          373 716         23 762      10 371              5 259           63 651

1.7.1964             414 659          323 609         20 233        8 625              3 939           58 253

1.1.1965             336 970          271 424         12 759        5 417              2 728           44 642

1.7.1965             267 451          211 734           9 829        4 677              2 002           39 209   

1.1.1966             206 567          161 160           7 645        2 821              1 792           33 149

1.7.1966             145 452          110 481           5 483        2 266              1 235           25 987

1.1.1967               99 348            73 521           3 652        1 161                 748           20 266

1.7.1967               59 342            40 728           2 182           571                 574           15 287

1.1.1968               19 477            13 822              538           158                 113             4 846

31.12.1968                    0                     0                  0               0                     0                    0

=================================================================

 

Tab. 32

CATTLE TUBERCULOSIS PREVALENCE AND INCIDENCE

PER 100,000 CATTLE HEADS, CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1960-1968

===================================================

Year                       Prevalence  per 100 000         Incidence   per 100 000

                               Cattle                   cows                   cattle                 

                                  at the end of year                 during the year

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1960                      20 372                30 421                  7 228

1961                      18 660                29 280                  4 760

1962                      15 060                24 270                  2 570

1963                      11 200                18 980                  1 860

1964                        7 890                13 920                  1 900

1965                        4 840                  8 270                  1 520

1966                        2 300                  3 780                     830

1967                           451                     717                     610

1968                               0                         0                     321

===================================================

 

Tab. 33

BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS  TERRITORIAL DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING

TO PROVINCES, CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1 January 1961

=========================================================

Province                                  TB Cattle                                   TB cows

                                   ----------------------------------       ---------------------------------

                                   number      prevalence rate       number      prevalence rate

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Czech Republic:

 

Prague City                   1 112              55.60                        826                 70.12

Central Bohemia       147 326              33.41                 104 546                 50.23

South Bohemia           71 769              19.48                   54 034                 31.77

West Bohemia            91 097              30.48                   62 397                 44.33

North Bohemia           89 912              47.23                   63 280                 71.19

East Bohemia              69 116              12.2                    55 009                  21.45

South Moravia           88 257              15.3                    54 906                  20.91

North Moravia           72 249              19.5                    55 900                  29.96

 

Slovak Republic:

 

West Slovakia          162 319              32.97                   97 183                  45.68

Central Slovakia         36 792              10.16                   28 565                  15.10

East Slovakia              63 844              20.10                   46 080                  26.74

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Total                           893 793              22.68                 622 726                 30.42

==========================================================
 

Tab. 34

SIMULTANEOUS TUBERCULIN TESTS USING MAMMAL

AND AVIAN TUBERCULINS, CZECH REPUBLIC, 1966-1980

===============================================

Year                       Number of tests

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1966                            101 905

1967                            129 363

1968                            219 467

1969                            177 429

1970                            192 866

1971                            192 400

1972                            209 251

1973                            218 125

1974                            231 134

1975                            248 219

1976                            300 170

1977                            290 789

1978                            270 337

1979                            325 716

1980                            257 658

===============================================

 

Tab. 35

LOSSES DUE TO CATTLE TUBERCULOSIS PAID BY INSURANCE AGENCY,

CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1961-1964

============================================================

Year                        Number of  cases                              Kčs

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1961                              21,348                                      29,141,000

1962                              19,339                                      26,312,000

1963                              18,391                                      25,773,000

1964                              11,981                                      17,201,000

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Total                            71,059                                       98,427,000

============================================================